Scott Lord on Silent Film

Silent Greta Garbo:Victor Sjostrom as Victor Seastrom
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Victor Sjostrom  Silent Garbo


Swedish Silent Film: Victor Sjostrom, Greta Garbo

Filmic address could more often be comprised of objects put into the scene, placing the view of the spectator within it, not only to bring a greater involvement with character, but to allow the spectator to identify more often with the relation between character and enviornment, technique providing the relation between film and viewer. Specific to the relationship between character and enviornment is the relation between the character and the object towards which he or she is looking. The aesthetics of pictorial composition could utilize placing the figure in either the foreground or background of the shot, depth of plane,depth of framing, narrative and pictorial continuity being developed together. Compositions would become related to each other in the editing of successive images and adjacent shots, the structure of the scene; Griffith had already begun to cut mid-scene, his cutting to another scene before the action of the previous scene was completed, and had certainly already begun to cut between two seperate spatial locations within the scene.


Author Kenneth Macgowan praises the silent film The Avenging Conscience as a photoplay, his view being that Giriffith’s film uses a narrative method of storystructure, action being secondary to character development, if not often interpolated in between scenes, his noting that it was seldom that Griffith used intertitles with lines of dialougue during a scene. Among the narrative films of Griffith filmed in 1909 was the silent film The Sealed Room.
The camera could also portray the character more fully by adding the movement of the camera to character movement, as in The Golden Louis (1909), mobilizing the gaze of the character within the organization of the look. In For Love of Gold, one of the fourty four biograph films made in 1908, D.W. Griffith and Bitzer had shifted the placement of the camera during the scene, the close up used in conjuction with the long shot and full shot. Not only could the editing together of different spatial relationships with each shot provide contrast between shots that were in a series, but the duration of each shot could be varying as well. With the use of varying camera postitions, particularly during the 1908 film After Many Years, Griffith would establish the use of the narrative close up, and by the interpolating of an individual shot between shots similar in composition as a cut in shot, editing would be used to connect seperate shots to advance plotline. With Griffith, film would create a proscenium arc of its own, that of the lens, a lens that would with the Vitagraph nine foot line bring the frame into the grammar of film, shifting from a viewpoint of playing in front of the audience to one more aligned with it, the authorial camera entering into a new relationship with the spectator- included in the films made by D. W Griffith in 1908 is a stage to screen adaptation of The Taming of the Shrew, with Florence Lawrence.
Among the literary adaptations filmed by Vitagraph in 1909 was Launcelot and Elaine.
In her autobiography, Lillian Gish08 discusses Griffith’s use of shot legnth in The Lonely Villa (1909) and his cutting between camera distances in The Lonedale Operator (1911). Not incidentally, Eisenstien in a discussion of Griffith’s editing goes so far as to describe ”the principle function of the close shot” which is ”not so much to present, as to signify, to designate, to give meaning.” Belazs adds, ”Only in editing is the shot given its particular meaning.” Cavell writes, ”If either the frame or subject budges, the composition alters.” If filmic address during a cinema of attractions had begun with the act of display, it had begun to incorporate the actor as seen in close shot, which could be edited into a grammar of film – the shot had become ”the unit of editing” and the ”basis for the construction of the scene” (Jacobs), whereas before it had been the scene that would allow the placement of shots, it now being that there could be an assemblage of shots. Terry Ramsaye writes,” Griffith began to work at a syntax for the screen narration…While Griffith may not have originated the closeup and like elements of technique, he did establish for them their function.”; which silent film author Nicholas A. Vardac reiterates by writing that it was from the films of Edwin S. Porter that D.W. Griffith acquired the technique of viewing the shot within its context as ”a syntax for the melodrama”.
Belazs mentions that the mood of a scene can be established by the particular set ups that are used, his almost attributing the ability to participate in the action to the surroundings and background in which the film takes place, as does Spottiswoode, who mentions that by filming from any number of postitions and angles, the director can decide which elements of the scene can be included in creating its mood, particularly which components of the director’s subject. Bengt Forslund notes that the use of nature to provide the action of the scene with something that would render it more dramatic Gardner, particularly diring ”the lyrical love sequences between Lili Beck and Gösta Ekman, his having written, ”There is also an intentionally stereoscopic effect in the sets that is typical of all of Sjöström’s films, and that shows the amount of intuition Sjöström had for the new medium.” Often in the films of Sjöström, like in those of Bergman, the landscape ”in which his journeys take place are part of the journey.” (John Simon). Peter Cowie has noted that Swedish films were often shot on location and that Sjöström had ”revelled in location shooting and embarked on the most perilous of stunts for the sake of realism.” Birgitta Steene writes that ”it was Sjöström and Stiller (as well as Griffith) who began to shoot pictures out-doors”. ”Nevertheless in his best dramas of pastoral life, Sjöström to integrate the rugged Swedish landscape into the texture of his films with an almost mystical force- a feature noted and much admired in other countries.” Venerated Swedish film historian Forsyth Hardy compares the directors Victor Sjöström to each other by writing, ”Both turned instinctively for material to the works of Selma Lagerloff with their combination of ardent puritanism and a passionate love of nature. And both were sensitively aware of the virtue which the camera could draw out of inanimate objects.” Sjöström and Stiller can be compared while relating their influence upon the silent film of Finland, but it can be allowed that ”Victor Sjöström delved deeper into the mysteries of the landscape.” (Annitti Alanen) Of interest is that the establishing shot that begins the Greta Garbo film Love, directed in the Untied States by Edmund Goulding is an exterior that begins the plotline with Garbo in a snowstorm being brought homeward in a sleigh; it is a series of exterior shots that depict nature as the background for character delineation very much like in the films of Scandinavian director Victor Sjöström, so much so that it is revealed in the first interior shots that both the love interest in the film, portrayed by John Gilbert, and the audience, were nearly unaware of who the character portayed by Garbo really was and hadn’t fully realized it untill being given later look at the beauty of the passenger, as though they were being reintroduced to someone they had been with during the journey through the snow.
And yet, if the present author has anything to add to what has been written in appreciation of Scandinavian film and its use of landscape to add depth to the development of character by creating relationships between the background and the protagonist of any given film’s plotline, within that is that within classical cinema and its chronological ordering of events, it is still often spatio-temporal relationships that are developed. The viewer often acknowledging the effect that an object within the film might have upon the character, an object that is either stationary or in movement, poeticly in movement as a waterfall would be, the structuring of space within the film not only clarifies plot action, but, within the framed image, included in the spatial continuity within the visual structure of the film, establishes a relation of objects that appear onscreen to the space that is offscreen. Spatial relations became narrative. Character movement, camera movement and shot structure create a scenographic space which within the gaze of the actress is observed through an ideal of femininity, a unity of space constructed that links shots, often by forming spaces that are contiguous within the scene and creating images that are poeticly presented as being contiguous; subjectivity is structured within the discourse of the film and these subjectivities are presented to the viewer as being within a larger context within early Silent Scandinavian films.
In addition to using close ups that could isolate the actor from what particular background that happenned to surround him or her, D. W. Griffith would establish the relationship between character and enviornment as well, particularly developing it through the use of editing and varying spatial relationships, as in his use of exteriors and the long shot in the silent film Battle at Elderbrush (1912).
In Kristianstad, Sweden the director Carl Engdahl pioneered with the film The People of Varmland (Varmanningarna) in 1909. Robert Olsson photographed The Wedding at Ulfasa for two directors, the second having had been being Gustaf Linden. The film starred the Swedish silent film actresses Ellen Appelberg, Lilly Wasmuth and Anna Lisa Hellstrom. In 1910, Olsson wrote, directed and photographed the film Emigranten, starring Oscar Soderholm and Valborg Ljungberg, and photographed the films Emigrant starring Torre Cederborg and Gucken Cederborg in her first appearance on screen, and Regina von Emmeritz och Kongung Gustaf II Adolf, starring Emile Stiebel and Gerda Andre, both directed by Gustaf Linden. Twelve years later, Gucken Cederborg was introduced to another actress who would soon be introduced to Swedish audiences, Barry Paris having written that when when she and actress Tyra Ryman walked into Pub with actor-director Eric Petschler, Greta Garbo, who worked there as a clerk, recognized them immediately.
Film historians have noted that Kristianstad, Sweden was home to another film, The Man Who Takes Care of the Villian (Han som clara boven), filmed in 1907. Produced by Franz G. Wiberg, the film has never been released theatrically.
Svensk Kinematograf was the production company that under N. E. Sterner had filmed six of the earliest films photographed in Scandinavia- Robert Olsson had photographed Pictures of Laplanders (Lappbilder), Herring Fishing in Bohuslan (Sillfiske i Bohuslan), Lika mot lika starring Tollie Zellman and Kung Oscars mottagning i Kristianstad in 1906 before working with Carl Engdahl. Also shown in Stockholm and Goteborg during 1906 was the film Kriget i Ostergotland. In 1911, Gustaf Linden, directed the film The Iron Carrier (Jarnbararen), photographed by Robert Olsson and starring Anna-lisa Hellstrom and Ivan Hedqvist. Similar to the early cinematography of Robert Olsson were the films shot by Ernest Florman, who wrote and directed the film Skona Helena (1903), which had starred Swedish actress Anna Norrie.
Another of Sweden’s earliest photographers was Walfrid Bergström, who was behind the camera between 1907-1911 in Stockholm for Apollo productions. In 1907 Bergström filmed Den glada ankan, one of the three films produced by Albin Roosval starring Carl Barklind and Emma Meissner and Konung Oscar II’s likbegangelse. Between 1907 and 1911, Bergstrrom would photographed Skilda tiders danser with Emma Meissner and Rosa Grunberg in 1909 and Ryska sallskapsdanser in 1911. During 1908, Svenska Biografteatern produced two short films with the actress Inga Berentz, Sjomansdansen, photographed by Walfrid Bergstrom, and I kladloge och pascen, photographed by Otto Bokman.
Charles Magnusson, who came to the United States, directed and wrote The Pirate and Memories from the Boston Sports Club in 1909 and Orpheus in the Underworld (Urfeus i underjorden) in 1910. Magnusson in 1909 had become the managing director of Svenska Biografteatern, which Julius Jaenzon become part of in 1910. Notably, while under N. E. Sterner of Svensk Kinematograf, Charles Magnusson had photographed Konung Haakons mottagning i Kristiania (1905), a short film of the King of Norway’s visit to Kristiania almost as though to presage that it would be there, rather than Rasunda that he would begin the Swedish Film industry, his also having directed the films Gosta Berlings land(Bilder fran Frysdalen, 1907), Gota elf-katastrofen (1908) and Resa Stockholm-Goteborg genom Gota och Trollhatte kanaler (1908). Konstantin Axelsson, in 1911, directed Hon fick platsen eller Exkong Manuel i Stockholm. Starring Ellen Landquist, the film was produced in Stockholm by Apollo and was photographed by Walfrid Bergstrom.
Like Charles Magnusson, Frans Lundberg produced short silent films in Sweden, the first two filmed in 1910. Stora Biografteatern, in Malmo, Sweden, photographed To Save a Son (Massosens offer), directed by Alfred Lind and starring Agnes Nyrup-Christensen, and The People of Varmland (Varmlandingarna), directed by Ebba Lindkvist, photographed by Ernst Dittmer and starring Agda Malmberg, Astrid Nilsson and Ester Selander. The following year Ernesr Dittmer would write and direct the film Rannsakningsdomaren, starring Gerda Malmberg and Ebba Bergman.
In Malmo Sweden, for Stora Biografteatern, Otto Hoy during 1911 wrote and directed the film The Spy (Spionen), starring Paul Welander and Agnes Nyrop-Christensen, the manager of Stora Biografteatern, Frans Lundberg. Paul Welander wrote and directed his first film in 1911, Champagneruset.
Carl Engdahl later appeared in the 1926 film Mordbrannerskan, directed by John Lindlof.
Forsyth Hardy notes that the early Swedish films of 1911 were films in which ”the camera remained static and the action was artificially concentrated into a small area in front of it.” Not quite apart from this and very much like the silent film included in Vardac’s account of the use of the proscenium arch in early cinema in Stage to Screen,the films directed by Anna Hofman Uddgren in 1911 were transpositions of Miss Julie and The Father (Fadren) ,the intimate theater of Swedish playwright August Strindberg. Cameraman Otto Bokman used two exterior shots during The Father, the film having starred Karin Alexandersson and Renee Bjorling. Miss Julie, a film that had had its Stockholm premiere at the Orientaliska Teatern, starred Karin Alexandersson and Manda Bjorling. Both plays were later to be filmed by Alf Sjöberg. Stiller had, in fact, been the manager of the Lilla Teaten and a contemporary of August Falk and Manda Bjorling had acted with him and Anna Flygare at the Intima Theatern. Uddgren also in 1911 directed Single a Dream (Blott in drom), starring Edith Wallen Sisters (Systarna), starring Edith Wallen and Sigurd Wallen and Stockholmsdamernas alskling, starring Carl Barcklind, Erika Tornberg and Anna-Lisa Hellström. Balif vid Molle (1911) was photographed by John Bergqvist. Also in Stockholm, the Kungliga Dramatiska Teatern, later managed by both Ingmar Bergman and Erland Josephson, was headed by Gustaf Fredriksson between 1904-1907 and then by Knut Michaelson between 1908-1910. Swedish Film Institue founder Charles Magnusson in 1911 directed The Talisman (Amuletten), starring Lili Bech. Victor Sjöström had had his own theater with Einar Froberg before his directing under Magnusson, it having been Froberg that had spoken to Magnusson before he and Sjöström had met. Swedish film director Gustav Molander had in fact been at the Intima Teatern from 1911 to 1913. The Blue Tower, where August Strindberg lived in Stockholm between 1908-1912 and where he wrote the play The Great Highway, is now part of The Strindberg Museum.
Thanhouser was also producing adaptations of literature for the screen and in 1911 filmed three plays by Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen: Pillars of Society (Samfundets stotter), Lady from the Sea (Fruen fra havet, Theodore Marston) and A Doll’s House (Et dukkehjem). Lubin that year filmed a version of Ibsen’s Sins of the Father (Gengangere).
Although a theory of a cinema of attractions depends less upon the use of the proscenium arch written about by Nicholas A. Vardac or the camera’s photographic reproduction of drama that had previously been enacted upon the stage and more upon the act of display having preceded the use of cinematic and editorial devices to propel narrative, the grammar of film would be used both to transpose the theatricality of the stage play and to adapt novels to the screen in ways which they could not be performed in front of a theater audience not only in regard to the modes of address which would position the spectator but also in regard to the public sphere of reception. Within the reception of each film there soon was a heterogeneity of filmgoers and that films were visual soon transversed language barriers between audiences that would otherwise have been seperate. Characteristic of early films that were adaptions of novels was the use of a linear narrative similar to that of the ”well made novel” novel of the nineteenth century, the camera following the character into each subsequent scene. There soon would be films in which there would be a contemporaneity of narrative and attraction. Raymond Spottiswoode distinguishes between the photoplay, the adaptation of the stage play to the screen with little or no editing, and the screenplay, where camera movement and technique is used to convey narrative- the photoplay can be likened to a cinema of attractions where the scene is filmed from a fixed camera position, whereas the screenplay includes the cut from a medium shot to a close shot in order to build the scene.
In regard to the camera being authorial, Raymond Spottiswoode writes, ”The spatial closeup is the usual means of revealing significant detail and motion. Small movements which must necessarily have escaped the audiences of a play sitting removed some distance from its actors can thus be selected from their surroundings and magnified to any extent.” While writing that how the camera is authorial includes its having only one position, that of the viewer, which, differing from that of the theater audience can vary with each shot change, depending upon the action within the scene, Spottiswoode cautions that the well written stage play is not suited for the camera’s mobility. He also indirectly addresses the use of nature as a way to connect characters to their enviornment while they are being developed that is quite often significant in Scandinavian films when writing about the possibility there being a ”difference film”, by that his referring to a film which uses relational cutting. ”To constitute such a ‘difference film’ is not sufficiently merely to photograph mountains and streams which are inaccessible to theater producers; the film must also choose a method of carrying on its purposive themes or meaning from moment to moment.” He continues, ”the public can be trained to appreciate that the differences between nature seen and nature filmed constitute the chief value of the cinema.”
In the United States, with Edison (The Road of Anthracite, Race for Millions and The Society Raffles) and Vitagraph (Raffles, the Amatuer Cracksman, The Burgler on the Roof), the attraction had literally become filmed theater, scenes based on those of the stage solely for dramatic value, photographed in one reel as though in one act, from which came the knee shot, or medium full shot; the use of the proscenium arch is more pronounced before the Vitagraph nine foot line, the camera distance of the knee shot, in that there would be space left as visible in between the actor’s feet and the bottom frameline, space articulated in tableau that would be more like that of when the spectator is in the audience at a theater. The legnth of one reel would be between eight hundred and one thousand feet. At first the films of Melies were shot in a single scene, as though filmed theater; in order to film narrative he then put seperate shots in order to become connected scenes, or ”artificially arranged scenes”. It would later become ”a constant shifting of scenes” (Lewis Jacobs). Although the article discusses the lack of narrative closure and unicity of frame in early cinema, the subject of a recent e-mailed book review was the writing of one author that has offered the idea that there is less of a demarcation between early cinema and the films that provide transition to the two-reel film -writing about the editing of Melies, Ezra gives an account of his films being comprised of combinations of photographic reproduction, spectacle and narrative. Quite certainly, the images of film are moving images and can advance the narrative and more of the film that was to come later would be dramatic narrative. The cinema of Melies has been likened to a cinema of attractions in its repetitive use of suprise and sudden appearance; the temporality of attraction one of appearance-nonappearance rather than that of development.
One particular silent film, Sherlock Holmes Baffled (1900), considerably under one minute in legnth, had starred William Gillete, ushering in the new century with the first screen appearance of the consulting detective. On vieweing the single shot film, the audience is as baffled as Holmes by the abrupt vanishings of a burgler that disappears and reappears throughout the room through the use of stop-motion trick photography, the film a superb example of early cinema and possibly any narrative of attractions (action within the frame) there may have been.
The Great Train Robbery, produced by Edwin S. Porter, was made by the Edison Manufacturing Co. and is included in the 275 silent films of the Paper Print Collection. Also included in the collection is the early silent film The Little Train Robbery filmed by the Edison Manufacturing Co. in 1905. The Library of Congress also holds a collection of early animation, in which two films produced by silent film pioneer Thomas A. Edison are included, as well as Dinosaur and the missing link, produced by Edison and written by Willis O’Brien in 1917. Charles Musser writes that more than four fifths of the films made by Edison between 1904 and 1907 were narrative or stage fiction; among these was the 1906 film Kathleen Mavourneen. The Edison company released its last film as a studio, The Unbeliever (Alan Crosland, six reels) in 1918. Not Incidentally, the term ‘one sheet’ used to describe the standard size of movie posters begin with the Edison photoplay; it was a size of approximately 27 inches by 41 inches and often included a synopsis of the plotline of the film. The early silent films of Thomas Edison are also presently available from Kino.
William Rothman writes that only one sixth of the film before 1907 had storyline. While Kenneth MacGowan also mentions filmmakers that had used trick photography other than Melies, among them G. A Smith of England, he adds that not untill Cecil Hepworth, with the silent film Alice in Wonderland, (1903) were there films that included seperate scenes to articulate fantasy or narrative. A later screen version of the silent film Alice and Wonderland was filmed by W. W. Young in 1915. Edison had filmed a version of Jack and the Beanstalk as early as 1902. Silent film director Cecil Hepworth would shortly thereafter bring the element of editing narrative into his films with Rescued by Rover. (1905)
Heath sees early cinema as space articulated in tableau, filmed frontally, storyline achieved by the linking of scenes, as when they are linked by characters and their having entered the frame, to the viewer, spectacle being horizontal, scenographic space. Mary Ann Doanne equates the cinema of attractions with ”an early form of cinema organized around single events” looking to the one-shot films as their often being ”the spectacular deployment of the female body”, as in the Biograph film, Pull Down the Curtains, Suzie (1904). Within a study of trade press and preformance style, ”intertextuality and contextuality”, which in this instance include a volume on stage acting written by actress Mae Marsh, Roberta Pearson looks at Biograph and demarcates a shift from codes within cinematic acting style that had occurred while narrative films was replacing the cinema of attractions. Pearson sees a ”desirability of versimiltude” clamored for by movie reviews between 1908-1913 to replace acting that may have been ”false, theatrical, and stagy, or, other words, histrionic.” Whether or not action can be  histrioniclly coded or have versimilar code automaticlly, or incontrovertibly, brings the spatial relationships of the figure on screen into play, and as the expression of narrative, the camera as position or having position brings a difference between stage acting and film acting that can inevitably be availed by the close-up- the artist’s model has been posed tightly within content and form. As a film historian, in Eloquent Guestures, Pearson goes further with the delineation of the cinema of attractions by further outlining the development and influence of the Vitagraph nine-foot line by addrssing, ”Staigers chronology, set forth in Classical Hollywood cinema”. ”Prior to 1907,” Pearson writes, ”according to Staiger, one person, the cameraman, had control of all aspects of film production, from the selection of the subject to the final editing”. Why the present author would look on this as pertinent is that in light of the early film of  Charles Magnusson that may have been newsreel in character and lacking narrative, as may have been the first Danish short films,  Pearson may have found a corrollary between studios in the United States and those in Scandinavia. She continues, ”By 1909, the film studios began to institute the ”director-unit” system to meet the need for twenty to thirty new reels a week.” This positions the director as a script-supervisor where the cameraman is left to control  the lighting of the shot.
The director at Biograph untill June 1908 had been Wallace McCutheon (Personal, 1904). The technique of crosscutting has been attributed to McCutheon (Her First Adventure, 1906; The Elopement, 1907); on occaision directors were beginning to hint at cutting on action by 1907 and were also beginning to link seperate scenes together, as when the same character appears in two scenes that are adjacent. If, within a cinema of attractions, narrative exposition had previously used a discontinuous style, one of filming a single action within what was then an autonomous shot, it would acquire as form a continuous style; when there were to be juxtapositions within narrative from shot to shot, they would be decisions of editing used for the advancement of plot. That intertitles were at first often explanatory shows the beginnings of a narrative within cinema. During an early scene of the silent Frankenstien (J. Searle Dawley, Edison, 1910), there is, in between scenes, an expository intertitle that uses of a close shot of a letter to develop character within the narrative, epistolary form used on the screen. A similar insert shot is used in the film Dash Through the Clouds (1912). Certainly by 1917 films made in the United States, and the films made by Sjöström and Stiller in Sweden had acquired a narrative transitivity, a chronological plot outline, more often than not their being characterized by their having a causal motivation of scene and its structure. In regard to film preservation and the intertitle, The Danish Film Institute used the screenplay to Dreyer’s film Der var Engang to provide descriptive intertitles to the film that explain its plot, including explanatory description that now appears in the same intertitle as the dialouge to the silent photoplay. Carl Dreyer had adapted the screenplay from the stage and seperated the two different types of intertitle while writing.
D. W. Griffith uses offscreen space in his structuring of shots during the 1910 film What Daisy Said, directed for Biograph. Most of the shots to the film are exterior longshots with two or more characters with a static camera. Starring with Gertrude Robinson, Mary Pickford enters the frame from the far left of the screen and exits near to the end of the shot from that same side. In a subsequent shot she enters from the right side of the frame, quickly climbs a set of outdoor stairs, exits from the left and then reenters the frame from the left to begin the next shot, her dancing from one side of the screen to the other and the camera cutting almost on her action of entering and exiting to begin each shot. She runs in fron of the camera from the offscreen space that frames the exterior and then runs back to the same side of the screen to exit the frame in a brief shot. She later slowly descends the outdoor stairs during the film to depict despair. Her movement as a unifying image, the moving subject, serves to link the adjacent shots, her movement within the frame carried into each subsequent shot so that the spatial relationships with the frame of each individual shot are seen with the shot to shot relationships of camera position and reposition, character movement linking the image to create narrative continuity as the viewer is brought to the edges of the rectangular frame. The significant action of the scene bringing an involvement with with the protagonist, the causality in the storyline of the film is constructed without the frequent use of explanatory intertitles.
It is not suprising that Kenneth Macgowan writing as early as 1965 in Behind the Screen divides early silent film into three periods: 1896-1905; 1906-1915; 1916-1925. Form and content in film technique seem to have developed together.
In regard to film preservation and the search for silent film, in April 2005, United Press International reported that films dating back as far as 1910, including one film entitled ”Little Snow White”, were found by the Huntley Archive., the unknown of collection totalling more than six hundread cans of film kept hidden in an airplane hanger in the south of England. To add to this, during June of 2006, the only copy of the first British narrative film, a film depicting a pickpocket directed by Birt Acres in 1895, as well as as many as six films that were included in the body of work filmed by Thomas Edison, was found in an attic in West Midlands, England. In his biography of Victor Sjöström, Bengt Forslund exuberantly remarks upon the discovering of a hitherto unknown copy of Predators of the Sea (Sea Vultures, Havsgama, 1914), starring Richard Lund, Greta Almroth and John Ekman, and not so exuberantly on the unlikelihood of a copy of Victor Sjöström’s film The Divine Woman, starring Greta Garbo, being found in the future. On the film Predators of the Sea, Forslund writes, ”Sjöström recounts his story simply and straitforwardly in remarkably well thought-out images of the kind we already know from Ingeborg Holm.
 The Nordisk Film Kompagni having had been founded in 1906, most of the early narrative films for the most part ”thrillers, tragedies and love stories” (Astrid Soderberg Widding), or ”the social melodrama and dive novel that made a hit from 1910 onwards” (Bengt Forslund), were directed by Viggo Larsen, who directed The Black Mask (1906), Revenge (1906) and The Magic Bed (Tryllesaekken, 1907) in Denmark : Urban Gad directed Asta Nielsen in her first film, The Abyss (Afgrunden, 1910) in Denmark, a film often written about due to her popularity and to a scene contained in it in which she dances eroticly; both directors went to Germany. Among the films produced by Nordisk Films Kompagni in 1906 was Bonden i Kobenhavn (Hunting of a Polar Bear), directed by its manager, Ole Olsen. Having established the Biografteatret, Copenhagen’s first movie theater, Ole Olsen established its first production company in 1906, Ole Olsen’s Film Industry, which that year filmed Pigeons and Seagulls (Duer og Maager). Ole Olsen also produced the 1906 films The Funeral of King Christian IX (King Christian IX’s Bisaettelse) and The Proclamation of King Fredderick VIII (King Frederick VIII’s Proklamtion).  Many of the silent films made by the Nordisk Films Kompagni, although produced by Ole Olsen, still have an unattributed director, one example of this being the film Rouges (Gartyve), filmed in 1906. Vitriolic Drama (Vitrioldrama), Violinist’s Romance (Violinistens Roman), Rivalinder (A Woman’s Duel/The Rivals), Gelejslaven, Tandpine, Knuste Haaband and Kortspillere were also filmed by Nordisk Films Kompagni during 1906. In 1906 Louis Halberstadt for Nordisk Films Kompagni directed the film Konfirmation, photographed by Rasmus Bjerregaard, it having been the first Danish silent film in which Greta Garbo co-star Jean Hersholt (The Rise and Fall of Susan Lennox) was to appear.
Viggo Larsen was quite possibly the first director to cut from one long shot of a scene to its reverse angle, a long shot of the scene from an opposite angle (Rovens Brod, 1907). The Danish photographer Axel Sorensen began filming for Larsen in 1906 and continued solely with Larsen untill 1911, when he began photographing first for Danish director August Blom and then for Danish director Urban Gad under the name of Axel Graatkjae. One film photographed by Axel Sorensen that Viggo Larsen is particularly noted for directing is The Lion Hunt (Lovejaten, 1907). In the year 1906, the actress Margrethe Jespersen had starred in the films Anarkistens svigermor (Larsen), Knuste hab, Caros dod, Haevnet (Larsen) and Fiskerliv i Norden (Larsen). In 1907, the actress Oda Alstrup was directed by Viggo Larsen and photgraphed by Axel Graatkjaer Sorensen for Nordisk Films in Camille (Kameliadamen), Den glade enke, Trilby (Lille Trilby), and in Aeren tabt-alt tabt and Handen (Haanden), both of which she had starred in with actress Thora Nathansen. Clara Nebelong appeared with her in the film Roverens brud. Among the films directed by Larsen in 1907 were A Modern Naval Hero (En Moderne Sohelt) and Once Upon a Time (Der var engang) with Clara Nebelong, Gerda Jensen and Agnes Norlund Seemann, both of which he appeared in as an actor. Actress Clara Nebelong also that year appeared in the films Vikingeblod and From the Rococo Times (Rosen), also directed by Viggo Larsen and photographed by Axel Sorensen. The Artist’s Model’s Sweetheart (Den Romersk Model) is among the films credited as having been directed by Viggo Larsen in 1908. Viggo Larsen in 1908 directed actress Lili Jansen in several films photographed by Axel Graatkjaer Sorensen, including Lille Hanne, Peters Held, Urmagerens Bryllup and The School of Life (Gennem Livets Skole), which also starred Thora Nathansen. Viggo Larsen that year also directed Mathilde Nielsen and Pterine Sonne in the film The Capricious Moment (Capriciosa). In 1909, Viggo Larsen directed the film Child as Benefactor (Barnet som Velgorer). Emmanuel Tvede directed only one film in Denmark, Faldgruben, and yet in it was future star Emilie Sannom in one of her first screen appearances, Danish actress Kate Fabian also having appeared in the film.
In addition to Nordisk Films, during 1910 the Regina Kunst Kompagni briefly produced films in Denmark, notably the first three films in which actress Clara Weith Pontoppidan had, as Clara Weith, starred, Elskovsleg, Djaevelsonaten, and Ett Gensyn, in which she starred with actresses Annegrette Antonsen and Ellen Aggerholm. Director Axel Strom directed Clara Weith in the film Dorian Grays Portraet, in which she starred with Valdemar Psilander as well as his having directed Johanne Dinesen in the film Den doe Rotte. Danish silent film actress Emilie Sannon also starred on screen for the Regina Kunst Kompagni, her having starred in the film Doden.
The versatility of Asta Nielsen, directed by her husband Urban Gad, was especially shown from film to film. The Abyss begins with a shot of the actress Asta Nielsen as Magda and her boarding a train as though it were a whistle stop. It continues with exterior longshots, untill the two characters are seen at an outdoor coffee table. There is a cut to an interior where she is seen in full shot opening a letter, the camera distance well behing the Vitagraph nine foot line, particularly for an interior filmed in 1910. Seated, the next shot shows her at a closer angle, filmed higher than her as she is reading the letter. It then cuts to a train station and then a series exterior full shots of her arriving in the country. The scene then shifts to an outdoor circus and an exterior full shot during which she dances. The storyline becomes dramatic, or sensational in its being melodramatic, where she flees with the circus, much like in the Greta Garbo film The Rise and Fall of Susan Lennox. There is in the film a near panning shot following characters as a horse drawn carriage parks near the exterior of a building, the camera then cutting to the interior where she is recieving guests.
 In Denmark, Urban Gad also directed actresses Emilie Sannom and Ellen Kornbeck, among the films Gad directed for Nordisk Films in 1911 two having been When Passion Binds Honesty (Dyrekobt Glimmer), in which both actresses appeared with Johannes Poulsen and Elna From, and An Aviator’s Generosity (Den Store Flyver, 3 reels), which had starred Christel Holck. Also that year Gad directed the films Spansk Elsker, and Sydens Born in Denmark. It was also that year that Urban Gad and Asta Nielsen would travel to Germany to film for Deutsche Bioscop. Asta Nielsen appeared on screen under Urban Gad’s direction with the cinematographer Karl Freund behind the camera that year in the films The Moth (Nachtfalter) and The Strange Bird (Der fremde Vogel). Asta Nieslen also continued in 1911 to appear under Gad’s direction in the films The Traitoress (Die Verraterin), Hot Blood (Heisses Blut), In Those Large Eye Glances (In dem grossen Augenblick).
The first Finnish narrative film, Bootleggers (Salaviinanpolttajat), was given to the Swedish director Louis Sparre, the film photographed by Frans Engstrom in 1907. Jaenzon filmed The Dangers of a Fisherman’s Life- An Ocen Drama (Fiskarliv ets farer-et Drama paa havet), an early Norwegian silent film under the direction of Hugo Hermansen. The first two Finnish directors, Erkki Karu and Teuvo Puro, are particularly noted for their use of nature as a background and landscape to complement the thematic, and yet Sylvi (1913) has been particularly likened to the film Ingeborg Holm, directed by Victor Sjöström. Peter Cowie notes that Karu’s The Logroller’s Bride (Koskenlaskijan morsian, 1923) has an exterior landscape scene that had been filmed by using six different cameras; the director later remade the film as the first Finnish film to include sound. The film Tukijoella (Log River) continued the influence of the Scandinavian film directors upon the silent cinema of Finland in their being a relation shown between the characters of the film and its background landscape, it having appeared in theaters in 1928. Also directing in Finland in 1913 was playwright Kaarle Halme who brought the films (The Bloodless Ones/Verettomat) and The Young Pilot (Nuori luotsi) to silent film audiences who had previously looked to the theater; the photplay, although quickly a new form of literature to convey the dramtic, and melodramtic, was still in Finland before 1919 contained within static camera angles without the frequent use of editing to complicate plotlines and character relationships, characters often shown in full figure, at the same camera distance, as at Vitagraph studios in the United States.
Peter Lykke-Seest, who had founded the first Norwegian film studio, the Christiana Film Company, was a screenwriter for Victor Sjöström (and Mauritz Stiller) before his directing The Story of a Boy (Historien om en gut) in 1919.
Aside from this was the consideration that once films had been begun to have been made that were two reels or more, dialouge,through the use of intertitles, and expository descriptions could be added to the way the causality of plotline was developed during a film and how character was delineated, intertitles that would not only lend continuity to the linear progression of storyline but also bring unity to it. Victor Sjöström later would in fact use intertitles to act as retrospective first person, voice over narrative. As well, narrative would no longer need to be only linear in regard to its structure and the syntax of film could include transitions between scenes; technique, in part could become the attraction.
Technique would become the ordering of images within an arrangement of shots that would bring seperate compositions into a relation within narrative- the film technique that would later be described by Christian Metz as consisting of syntagmatic categories, technique that would avail questions regarding whether a segment would be autonomous, chronological, linear, narrative or descriptive, continuous and whether it would be organized, was beginning to be decided. Metz in fact had viewed the narrative function in cinema as being what had brought about its development, it being more than possible that the techniques developed by Ince and Griffith were the exingencies of narrative form.
That Sjöström the actor would later be shown in both long shot and close shot in the same sequence shows the relation between the character on the screen and the space within the frame; in that the camera had been becoming increasingly authorial, it often seemed to provide an embodied viewpoint from which an idealized spectator could view onscreen space, and by its being authorial, could seem to reposition the spectator during the film through the use of a second central character. While discussing film technique as something that is a reproduction of the images before the spectator, Raymond Spottiswoode claims that ”it can never attain to art”, and yethe adds that there must be a freedom available to the director ”if he is to infuse his purpose and character into the beings of nature, to change them that their life becomes more living, their meaning more significant, their vlaue more sure and true.” He continues that while it can be put forth that there is only one camera angle that any scene can be photographed from, one relation to the camera that any object can be aquire within the varying spatial relations that it takes while arranged with the other objects in front of the camera, ”there is no reason to suppose that the choice of a camera angle is not perfectly free.” The attention of the spectator could be directed spatially. It is by being authorial that the camera can impart meaning, technique not only to have brought an objectification of what was in front of the camera but also of the camera itself as it observed the actors within the scene, as it photographed the object, the structure of the image deigned by the placement of the camera, the pleasure of the spectator derived in part from the parallel between the spectator and the camera. In regard to the camera being authorial, a group member of an e-mailed silent film mailing list recently in a post quoted a postulate of the theory of there being a cinema of attractions, ”The narrator in the early films is sporadic; an occaisional specter rather than a unified presence.”
Sjöström had said, ”At one time, Moje was without any doubt in love with Garbo, and she with him.” and she had reiterated that if ever she were to love anyone it would be Mauritz Stiller, the director who had taken her to see her first motion picture in the United States, The Lady Who Lied (1925, eight reels) with Lewis Stone and Nita Naldi. Fredrick Sands quotes Victor Sjöström as having said, ”For a certain time at least Stiller was in love with her and she with him. They told me so themselves.” Stiller, after having met cameraman Julius Jaenzon, had begun directing for Svenska Bio in 1912 with Mother and Daughter (Mor och Dotter), in which he acted with Anna Norrie and Lily Jacobsson and then in the same year The Black Masks (De svarta maskerna), in which Sjöström acted with Lili Bech and the film The Tyrannical Fiancee (Den Tyranniske Fastmannen), in which he starred with Agda Helin. Produced by AB Svenska Biografteatern, the film The Black Masks, is a circus movie in regard to its subject. It has been noted that the film is exceptionally edited, its numerous, varied scenes, ”a constantly changing combination of interiors and exteriors, close-ups and panoramic shots.” (Forsyth Hardy).
 It had been early in 1912 that Magnusson had met with screen writer Erik Ljungberger who gave Magnusson Victor Sjöström’s name and who telephoned him for Magnusson. Victor Sjöström that year wrote and directed The Marriage Bureau (Aktenskapsbryan) with Victor Lundberg and directed A Secret Marriage (Ett hemlight giftermal) with Hilda Borgström, Smiles and Tears (Lojen och tarar) with Mia Hagman, a film written by Charles Magnusson and photographed by Julius Jaenzon, A Summer’s Tale (En Sommar Saga) and Lady Marion’s Summer Flirtation (Lady Marion’s sommarflirt, photographed by Julius Jaenzon and starring Hilda Borgström.
That year Paul Garbagni directed both Victor Sjostrom and Mauritz Stiller with actress Astrid Endgelbrecht in the film Springtime of Life (In the Spring of Life, I livets var), adapted from the novel The First Mistress by August Blanche- almost as soon as Swedish cinema had begun, it had begun adapting the novel to film; the significance of the cinema of attractions would now be in the shot, the placement of the shot within the scene, display relegated to frame compositions.
Eric Malmberg that year directed the films Oceanbreakers and Stolen Happiness (Branningar eller Stulen lycka) with Lily Jacobsson, Tollie Zellman and Victor Arfvidson, Det grona halsbandet with Lilly Jacobsson and Agda Helin and Samhallets dom, with Lily Jacobsson, Agda Helin, Tollie Zellman and actress Lisa Holm in the first film in which she was to appear, as well as Agaton and Fina (Agaton och Fina), and Two Swedish Emigrants in America (Tva svenska emigranters afventyr i Amerika), both photographed by Julius Jaenzon, also with Lily Jacobsson. John Ekman directed Swedish actress Stina Berg in her first appearance on the screen in the film The Shepherd Girl (Saterjantan), photographed by Hugo Edlund for Svenska Biografteatern. The Last Performance (Dodsritten under cirkuskupolen), Musiken makt, starring Lily Jacobsson, Jupiter pa jorden, with Axel Ringvall, and Tva broder with Birger Lundstedt and Eugen Nilsson, were filmed by Georg af Klercker. Algot Sandberg that year directed the film Farbror Johannes ankomst till Stockholm.
In Malmo, Sweden, for the Danish film producer Frans Lundberg and Stora Biografteatern, Paul Welander in 1912 contributed the films The Pace That Kills (Broder och syster), The Circus Queen (Circusluft), and two films photographed by photographer Ernst Dittmer, The Boa Constrictor (Ormen), The Flirt (Karlekens offer) and Princess Charlotte (Komtessan Charlotte), starring Phillipa Frederiksen and Agners Nyrup-Christensen, Welander also that year having starred with Ida Nielsen in The Bonds of Marriage (Karleksdrommar) a film made by Frans Lundberg. Charles Magnusson would direct The Green Necklace (Det grona halsbandet) and The Vagabond’s Galoshes (Kolingens galosher), both photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Jaenzon that year was the photographer and director of the film Condemned by Society.
1912 was also the year that Hjalmar Söderberg, often considered the nearest contemporary to Strindberg, published the novel The Most Serious Game (Den allvarsamm leken) and the one act play Aftonstjarnan. The first publication to appear written by Par Lagerkvist, People (Manniskor), a collection of short stories was also printed that year as well.
In the United States, Mary Pickford had a year earlier left Biograph where she had filmed under the direction of D. W. Griffith and Frank Powell to film with Thomas Ince at IMP studios during the first two months of the beginning of 1911. Among the films she made there were Their First Misunderstanding, The Dream, Maid or Man, At Duke’s Command, The Mirror, While the Cats Away, Her Darkest Hour and Artful Kate. Before returning to Biograph, she spent the last two months of 1911 at The Majestic Company, filming under the direction of George Loane Tucker and Owen Moore.
The year of 1912 was to mark the first film with Lillian and Dorothy Gish, An Unseen Enemy, along with the Mary Pickford film A New York Hat, the first photoplay written by Anita Loos. Within the short scenes of the film, Mary Pickford is shown in to the right of the screen in medium close shot trying on a hat, her hands and bended elbows in frame. Griffith cuts on the action of her leaving the frame to exterior shots. In a later scene, Griffith positions her to the left of the screen, and, his already having shown time having elapsed between the two two scenes, then brings the ensuing action back to the right of the screen frame. As an early reversal of screen direction, or screen positioning, there is the use of scene editing in between the complementary positions of showing her in the same interior. During the film, the actress is, almost referentially, often kept in right profile, facing the right of the screen’s frame.
During the Biograph silent film short The Musketeers of Pig Alley (1912) Griffith frames Lillian Gish at a table, only half of her visible in the frameline untill she leaves the table, and then cuts on the action of her leaving the frame as she crosses the screen from one interior into the adjacent one, her crossing the screen from left to right in both the shots Griffith had edited together, toward the far left side of the screen in the first, toward the middle of the screen in the next. Vertical space allows a disclosure in the film, one allowed by the moving figure as Gish skirts from one room to the next, her moving into the unexpected space the audience may or may not have already seen where there is action that has been simultaneously transpiring within the temporality of the film. In a film from the same year in which Gish only briefly appears, A Burgler’s Dilema, Griffith again cuts on action often, particularly during entrances, but interpolates very brief exterior shots in between scenes, increasing their frequency and interspersing within the scene as the film continues and the pace of the action hastens, or complicates, with the plotline.
If it is that spatial compostition can be included as a part of the grammar, or syntax, of film, within that is pictorial continuity and the use of visual tropes. A spatial relation is established through screen direction as figure movment becomes motion within the frame and action that the camera can cut on before continuing it in the subsequent frame, the camera cutting within the scene for effect. The spatial movement of the character is continued from shot to shot, linking each of them through a directional continuity, and yet, within the scene, the contour of objects, their proximity to the camera and their arrangement in front of the camera as its various positions cause it to become more authorial, is varied with each contrast between the adjacent shots within the temporality of the scene. As an inscription of its own being authorial, the camera could participate in narrative drama as an unseen presence, particularly through its own repostioning, unobtrusive if omnipresent in its guiding the spectator toward the action of the scene. Establishing the relation between spectator and content, the actress as an element of the film’s pictorial compostion, in turn, could, as an aesthetic object, often substitute for the gaze of the female spectator, particularly as a motif for femininity, quite possibly more noticebly during cut in close ups where, while photographed with the space between her and the camera only represented by her near filling the area of the frame, spectator interest would recess into brief plateau before the narrative would climb into an increase of identification untill the quiet, slow stillness of the close up that would come next.
The following year Mary Pickford would go from Biograph to Famous Player to make Bishop Carriage (four reels), Hearts Adrift (four-five reels) and A Good Little Devil (five reels) with the director Edwin S. Porter. Of the film, Pickford wrote, ”we were made to read our entire speeches before the camera. The result was a silent reproduction of the play, instead of what should have been, a restatement of the play in terms of action and pantomine.” For the most part, when filming her, Porter used medium and long shots; Kirkland would later use the close up. Writing about 1912 in her autobiography Sunshine and Shadow, silent film actress Mary Pickford remembers her first close up, ”Billy took the shot, which was a semi-close up, cutting me at the waist…It was a new image of my face that I was waiting to see. What a frightening experience when my grotesquely magnified face finally flashed on the screen…But I was critical enough to notice the make up…’I think there’s too much eyebrow pencil and shadowing around my eyes,’ I said. Later,on a seperate occaision, she had realized there was low light reflected back towards her while she was readying her make up for a scene and had asked her director to use artificial light from below while filming her. The autobiography of silent film star Douglas Fairbanks, Laugh and Live, is apparently no longer available online from sunrisesilents.
Having directed The Indian Massacre and Across the Plains the year before, Thomas Ince directed the silent films The Invaders (three reels), starring its co-director, Francis Ford,and Ethel Grandin, Shadows of the Past and Custer’s Last Fight in 1912. Ince, and the directors that photographed with him, have been attributed with having been among the early directors to have varied camera postitions with the use of more than one shot during a scene, particularly the use of the reverse angle to cut around a scene and its use to develop the action of the scene during its climax. It is often acknowledged that Thomas Ince was the first director to use a shooting script. Author Kenneth MacGowan notes that Ince ”strove for a theatric effect”, but only with scripts that were ”direct and tight” and used intertitles to advance character action, dramatically relating events as a technique of exposition. If this was later remarked upon as being part of a comparision and contrast, Mary Pickford was to write, ”As I recall, D. W. Griffith never adhered to a script. Improvisation was frequently the order of the day. Sometimes the camera registered an impromputu piece of off-story action and that too stayed in the film.” Lillian Gish in no way contradicts her by writing about how Griffith used the editing room to develop storyline, particularly by adding close ups and shots of objects, ”Later, he would make sense of the assorted shots in the cutting room, giving them drama and continuity.” These cut-in shots were inserted into the scene to add ”depth and dimension to the moment”.
During 1912 the first film that would star Mary Miles Minter would appear on the marquee, the one reel The Nurse and Anna Q. Nilsson would make her first film, the one reel Molly Pitcher. Oddly enough, Nilsson’s studio, Kalem, had given the title role of The Vampire to Alice Hollister, the two later united on the screen in A Sister’s Burden (1915). In addition to the films of Louise Glaum,whom Fred Niblo directed in Sex (1920, seven reels), and Valeska Suratt, another film of that title had starred Olga Petrova, it seeming that quickly ” ‘vamp’ became an all too common noun and in less than a year it was a highly active verb, transitive and intransitive” (Ramsaye). Stiller had directed Sjöström in his first roles as an actor in For sin Karlekskull (Because Her Love), When Love Kills (Nar karleken dodar) in which he starred with Georg af Klercker, The Child (Barnet) and, coincidently, The Vampire (Vampyren/The Nightclub Dancer),in which he starred with Lili Bech. Anna Q. Nilsson would appear in War’s Havoc, Under a Flag of Truce and The Soldier Brothers of Suzanna in 1912. Lillian Gish would later play a vamp in Diane of the Follies (1916). Birgitta Steene writes that in the films of Ingmar Bergman, ”the vamp is portrayed as the social victim rather than the embodiment of sin.”
Danish silent film direct Wilhelm Gluckstadt began directing in 1912 with the film The Blue Blood (Det blaa Blod), scripted by Stellan Rye and starring Elina Jorgen Jensen, Grethe Ditlevsen and Gudrun Houlberg. That year Wilhelm Gluckstadt also directed the exceptionally beautiful Danish film actress Eimilie Sannom in the films Konfetti, De to brodre and Zigeunerorkestret.  Danish film director Aage Brandt during 1912 would direct Vera Brechling in A Death Warning (Dodsvarlet)
Danish silent film director August Blom in 1912 filmed with the photographer Johanne Ankerstjerne for Nordisk Film, notably with the actress Clara Weith Pontoppidan, whom he directed in the film Faithful Unto Death (Et Hjerte af Guld) and had directed a year earlier in the film In the Prime of Life (Ekspedtricen), photographed by Axel Sorensen. Blom that year also for Nordisk Film directed Robert Dinesen in the films Stolen Treaty (Secret Treaty/ Den Magt Trede and The Black Chancellor (Den Sorte Kansler) with Valdemar Psilander, Ebba Thomsen and Jenny Roelsgaard, The Black Chancellor having been a film in which Danish silent film scriptwriter Christian Schroder appeared on screen as an actor. That year August Blom also directed A High Stake (Hjaerternes Kamp).
Danish film director Benjamin Christensen  followed with  Blind Justice (Haevnansnat, 1915), both films having starred the actress Karen Caspersen. The two films by Christensen were of the only three produced by the Dansk Biograf Compagni. Benjamin Christensen had starred as an actor with actress Karen Caspersen and Ellen Malmberg during 1913 in Skaebnebaeltet, directed by Danish silent film director Sven Rindom, his also that year having starred in the films Children of the Stage (Scenens Born, Bjorn Bjornson), starring Bodil Ipsen and Aud Egede-Nissen and Lille Klaus Og Store Klaus (Elith Reumert). Children of the Stage was produced by Dania Biofilm Kompagni.
For Ingmar Bergman,the first notable Swedish film is Ingeborg Holm from 1913. In an interview with Jonas Sima, he describes the directing of Victor Sjöström, ”It is one of the most remarkable films ever made…Often he works on two planes, something being played out in the foreground,but then,through a doorway for instance,one sees something quite different is going on in the background.”. Produced by AB Svenska Biograteatern and five reels in legnth, it is also his screenplay from a play by Nils Krook which Sjöström had adapted for the stage in 1907. Like Sarah Bernhardt, Hilda Borgström had came to film. Also in the film are Aron Lindgren and George Gronroos. William Larsson and Carl Barcklind both appear in the film as well. It is almost astounding that under the title Give Us This Day the legnth of the film is listed as having reached seven reels. Einar Lauritzen wrote, ”The primitive tableau of the time cannot destroy the genuine feeling for both character and enviornment which Sjöström brought to almost every scene.”
Much like it being that the films of Bergman ”concern interior journeys: journeys into the soul of the character, or into the souls of two related characters” (John Simon), that Ingeborg Holm was a contemporary drama is particularly a matter for aesthetics, as was the observation that there may have been the photoplay of intimacy, the photoplay of action or the photoplay of splendor. As a side note from the present author, the caption on the cover to the filmed version of The Painted Veil, starring Naomi Watts reads, ”Sometimes the greatest journey is the distance between two people.” What is beautiful is not only that the images of film consist of our being in a position to them spectatorially, or the look that is entailed within suture, but that behind the close ups of faces there is a character, quite often one in the midst of drama- if the cinema of attractions was followed by a cinema of narrative integration, what concerns aesthetics is that no matter how maudlin or whether or not plot was translated into fantasy, the cinema had begun to develop character more fully, more deeply. Bengt Forslund writes, ”I am fairly convinced that it was always the fate of the individual that intrigued Sjöström- not the circumstances that led to it.”
Interestingly enough, one of the best explanations of classical narrative construction, narrative form which is often based on there being a casual relationship between events that are connected spatially during the film brought about by its characters, comes from the Swedish director Ingmar Bergman. In his autobiography Images, Ingmar Bergman relates that it was Stina Bergman, then head of the script department, who had asked for him at Svensk Filmindustri. She and her husband Hjalmar Bergman had in fact met with Victor Sjöström while in the United States, where Stina Bergman had acquired the technique of scriptwriting. ”This technique was extremely obvious, almost rigid; the audience must never have the slightest doubt where they were in the story. Nor could there be any doubt about who was who, and the transitions between various points of the story were to be treated with care. High points should be allotted and placed at specific places in the script and culmination had to be saved for the end. Dialougue had to be kept short.” Author David Bordwell often approximates this description of continuity in the feature film. Bergman continues in the autobiography to write that many of the remarks that Stina Bergman made at that time were treasured by him and that Hjalmar Bergman was his idol.
The Miller’s Daughter, The Song of the Shirt (1908) and A Corner in Weat (1909) directed by D. W. Griffith, are early films that depicted the individual within a social context, the early photoplay Falling Leaves directed by Alice Guy Blanche the year prior to the filming of Ingeborg Holm, also being among films which centered its characters around a social drama. Later films, including The White Rose (1923), with Mae Marsh, more elaborately presented theme as being intertwined with the drama in which the characters were situated. Sweden, in 1953, made The Bread of Love (Karlekens brod). Writing about the films of Victor Sjöstrom, Bengt Forslund notes, ”Guilt Redeemed, shot in the early summer of 1914, may perhaps be seen as an attempt to repeat the success of Ingeborg Holm. Guilt Redeemed (Skana Skuld) starred actress Lili Bech.
The films that Victor Sjöström had made in 1913 were scheduled to be shot within one or two weeks. Among them were Half-Breed (Halvblod) with Karin Molander, its screenwriter Peter Lykke-Seest, The Voice of Blood (Blodets rost) with Greta Almroth and Ragna Wettergreen, The Conflicts of Life (Livets konflikter) starring Gösta Ekman, A Good Girl Should Solve Her Own Problems (Bra flicka reder sig sjalv) with Clara Pontoppidan and Jenny Tschernichin and The Clergyman (Prasten), starring Clara Pontoppidan and Egil Eide. Alongside Sjöström, that year Maurtiz Stiller would film Nar larmklockan ljunder, with Lilly Jacobsson, en pojke I livets strid, The Modern Suffragette (Den moderna suffragetten), Brother Against Brother (People of the Border, Gransfolken), which was the film debut of Edith Erastoff and in which Anders Henrikson had appeared, The Girl From Abroad (The Unknown Woman, Den okanda), with Jenny Tschernichin-Larsson and Grete Wiesenthal and The Fateful Roads of Life (Pa livets odesvagar), with Clara Pontoppidan. No less than four Swedish silent film actresses would make their first appearance on the screen in Mauritz Stiller’s film The Fashion Model (Mannekangen) : Ida Otterström, Anna Diedrich, Lili Ziedner and Mary Johnson. Of Svenska Bio in 1913, Begnt Förslund notes, ”Sjöstr&#246m was not always permitted to choose his material.” Scripts were submitted to Victor Sjöström much in the same way they would be to directors the United States.
George af Klercker in 1913 directed the film The Scandal (Skandalen) for Svenska Biografteatern, it having starred actresses Anna Norrie and Selma Wiklund af Klerker and having been photographed by Henrik Jaenzon. That year Klercker also appeared with Selma Wiklund af Klercker as an actor in the film With Weapon in Hand (Med vapen i hand), which he directed. Carl Barklind directed his first film that year, The Suicide Club (De lefvande dodas klubb), photographed by Julius Jaenzon and starring Hilma Barcklind and Nils Arehn. Barcklind had appeared as an actor in the film Den glada ankan in 1907. Paul Welander directed and Axel Briedahl scripted the 1913 film Black Heart and White (Karleken rar) starring Ida Nielsen, Martha Helsengreen and Ellen Hygolm. John Bergqvist that year directed the films Amors pilar eller Karlek i Hoga Norden and Lappens brud eller Dramat i vildmarken, both with Birger Lundstedt and Hildi Waernmark as well as the film Truls som mobiliserar, with Otto Sandgren. Paul Welander in 1913 directed A Fallen Star (Hjaltetenoren). Arthur Donaldson that year directed Lilly Jacobsson in the film En skargardsflickas roman, which he wrote and in which also appeared as an actor.    
In 1913, Griffith directed Blanche Sweet in the films Love in an Apartment, Broken Ways, If We Only Knew and Death’s Marathon. After the four reel Judith of Bethulia, a film which interestingly ”is really an interior drama, in as much as the majority of the action is thoughtful, an interchange of emotions between two characters” (Slide), Griffith had left Biograph for Mutual to direct Gish in the five reel The Battle of the Sexes. With the advent of the feature film, in adddition to including a greater number of characters during each film, directors could more often include minor characters that would become spectators in the film watching the action, as when the camera had cut from a master shot to a closer angle, or during panning, character interest increased as the characters the viewer was watching were observed by the other characters in the film, the individual characters on the screen visual elements of the film that were to move in relation to each other, the film’s secondary characters framing the action and visual interest of the film. The editing of Griffith would in fact begin to shift from one group of characters to another more often.
While in the United States, Betty Nansen appeared in the films of producer William Fox. Among  the films in which Betty Nansen starred in that were filmed in the United States after her leaving Denmark, four were directed by J. Gordon Edwards in 1915: A Woman’s Resurrection, The Song of Hate, scripted by Rex Ingram, Should a Mother Tell, also written by Rex Ingram, and Anna Karenina (five reels), scripted by Clara Beranger.
Lon Chaney appeared in his first films in 1913, among those being Back to Life (Alan Dwan, two reels), The Lie, Discord and Harmony and The Embezzler. There were two film adapations of A Study in Scarlet photographed in 1914, one in the United States, in which the director Francis Ford also starred as the detective Sherlock Holmes, the other in England, produced by British film director George Pearson with James Braginton in the role. The latter film was followed by a version of The Valley of Fear, with H. A. Saintsbury, in 1916.
Mauritz Stiller and Victor Sjöström both had continued to direct in 1914 and 1915, the former with His Wife’s Past (Hans hustrus forflutuna), The Avenger (Hamnaren) ,which, starring Karin Molander, was the first film in which the actress Tyra Dorum had appeared on the screen, Playmates (Lekkamraterna), The Red Tower (Det Roda tornet), written by Charles Magnusson and starring Karin Molander, Stormy Petrel (Stormfageln), starring Lilly Jacobsson The Master Thief (Matsertjuven) with Wanda Rothgardt, Gentleman of the Room (Kammarjunkaren) with Clara Pontoppidan, Madame de Thebes, starring Karin Molander and The Dagger (Dolken) starring Lars Hanson.
The latter, Victor Sjöström, continued directing with The Miracle (Miraklet) with Clara Pontoppidan and Jenny Tschernichin-Larsson, photographed by Henrik Jaenzon. In regard to the film, based on a story by Zola, Bengt Forslund views as the foreground to the film Monastery of Sendomir and Love’s Crucible with the caution that Sjöström may not truly have had an affinity with making ”cloistered romances” much in the way his making The Divine Woman may have been pedestrian, significantly the author adds, ”It is clearly the first time that Sjöström consciously made use of a particular stretch of natural landscape as a background to the drama.” Victor Sjöström also that year continued with Landshovdingens dottar, a film adapted by Sjöström from the novels of Marika Stiernstedt, Do Not Judge (Domen icke) starring Hilda Borgström, Children of the Streets (Gatans Barn), photographed by Henrik Jaenzon and starring Stina Berg, Love Stronger than Hate (Karlek Starkare an Hat), starring Emmy Elffors and John Ekman, Daughter of the High Mountain (Hogfjalletts dotter), in which Sjöström starred with Greta Almroth and Lili Bech, Hearts that Meet (Hjartan som motas), photographed by Henrik Jaenzon and starring Karin Molander and Greta Almroth, The Strike (Strejken), in which Sjöström starred with Lilly Jacobsson, It Was in May (Det var i Maj), written by Algot Sandberg and photographed by Henrik Jaenzon, The Price of Betrayal (Judaspengar), starring Stina Berg, Stick to your last, Shoemaker (Skomakare, bliv vid din last), starring Stina Berg and In the Hour of Trial (I provingens stund), in which he starred with Greta Pfeil and Kotti Chave. Recently, the theater in the city of Uppsala where the Swedish silent films Domen icke and Bra flicka reder sig sjalv, directed by Victor Sjöström, and the film Stromfagelin directed by Mauritz Stiller, were first shown has been renovated, restoring it to how it first looked when built in 1914. Victor Sjöström ,incidentally, had returned to the stage in 1914 and 1915 at the Intima Theatre under the direction of Gustaf Collijn for a production of Strindberg’s play To Damascus.
After his having starred in the films of Victor Sjöström, Gunnar Tolnaes, who in 1915 appeared in the films One Out of the Many (En av de manga) with Greta Almroth, Lilly Jacobsson and Lili Bech, and When Artists Love (Nar konstnarer alska), returned to Denmark from Sweden to film Doktor X under the direction of Robert Dinesen.
At Svenska Biograteatern in 1914 Axel Breidahl directed King Solomon’s Judgement (Salomos drom) with Lili Zeidner and Stina Berg and the films The Birthday Present (Fodelsedagspresenten) starring Karin Alexandersson, Stina Berg and Lili Ziedner and The Way to A Man’s Heart (Vagen till mannens hjarta) starring Lili Ziedner, Stina Berg and Hilda Borgström, both photographed by Henrik Jaenzon.
Danish Silent film director Holger-Madsen often filmed with the cinematographer Marius Clausen. Betty Nansen in 1914 starred in his film For the Sake of A Man (Under Skaebnens Hjul), which, also starring Maja Bjerre-Lind, Christel Holch and Ingeborg Jensen, was among those films he photographed with Clausen. In 1914, Danish silent film director Vilhelm Gluckstadt directed the film Youthful Sin (Ungdomssynd), starring Sigrid Neiiendam.
Swedish Film director Edmond Hansen in 1915 directed the film Revenge (Hamnden ar ljuv), his also having that year directed Edith Erastoff in two films for Svenska Biografteatern, A Hero in Spite of Himself (Hjalte mot sin vilja), which was not only the first film photographed by Swedish cameraman Carl Gustaf Florin but also the first film scripted by Swedish screenwriter Oscar Hemberg, and The First Prize (Hosta vinsten), photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Arvid Endglin wrote and directed the film An Error (En forvillelse), starring Clara Pontoppidan, William Larsson and Egil Eide and directed Patrick’s Adventures (Patriks aventyr), starring Alfred Lundberg and Hilda Forsslund, the film having been the first in which she was to appear.
Apparently George af Klercker directed every film but one that was produced by Hasselblads Fotografiska AB from its first film in 1915 untill it merged early in 1918 to become part of Filmindustri AB Skandia early in 1918, and that film was directed by Manne Gothson (Perils of the Big City/Storstadsfaror), who had been Klercker’s assistant director, Gothson having had been being the assistant director to the 1915 film In the King’s Uniform (I kronas klader). George af Klerker in 1915 contributed the film The Rose of Thistle Island (Rosen pa Tistelon), the first film in which the actresses Elsa Carlsson and Anna Löfström were to appear. The film was produced by Hasselblads Fotografiska and Victorias Filmbyra. Goteborg, Sweden provided the location in which the studios of Hasselblads Fotografiska AB were housed. Two of Hasselblad’s photographers that filmed under the direction of George af Klercker were Gustav A. Gustafson and Sven Pettersson.
Besides the photographers Julius and Henrik Jaenzon, another of Sweden’s cameramen was Hugo Edlund who photographed the film His Father’s Crime (Hans faders brott, 1915), the director F. Magnussen’s first film, it having starred Richard Lund and Thure Holm. Both Edlund and Julius Jaenzon are listed as having been the cinematographer to the films Den Moderna suffragetten and For sin karleks skull. Magnussen in 1916 also directed the films The Hermits Wife (Enslingens hustru), starring Greta Almroth, Her Royal Highness (Hennes kungliga hoghet) ,starring Karin Molander and At the Eleventh Hour (I elfte timmen), also starring Greta Almroth, each filmed by Hugo Edlund.
It was in 1915 that Frances Marion began writing photoplays, her being the scenarist to Daughter of the Sea (Charles W. Seay, five reels). She wrote The Gilded Cage (H. Knoles, five reels) in 1916 and Stolen Paradise (H. Knoles, five reels), Battle of Hearts (Apfel, five reels) and The Feast of Life in 1917. Theda Bara would make her first film in 1915, The Clemenceau Case and two films for the director Herbert Brenon, Kreutzer Sonata (five reels) and Two Orphans (seven reels), which had been filmed by Selig in 1911 with Kathlyn Williams. Montague Love, who appeared with Lillian Gish in Victor Sjöström’s The Wind began in film in 1915 with Exile and in 1916 with A Woman’s Way, The Gilded Cage, and Bought and Paid For.
Clarence Brown during 1915-1917 was the assistant director and editor at Universal for director Maurice Tourneur. Notably, in 1925 he directed The Goosewoman with Louise Dresser and Constance Bennet for Universal/Jewel..Cameraman William Daniels had been an assistant cameraman at Triangle before becoming chief cameraman at Universal.
1914-1915 was also the brief period during which Dansk Filmfabrik, in Aarhus, Denmark produced the films of director Gunnar Helsengreen, including I dodens Brudeslor (1914), starring Gerda Ring, Jenny Roelsgaard and Elisabeth Stub, Sexton Blake (1915), Menneskeskaebner (1915) and Elskovs Tornevej (1915), also starring Jenny Roelsgaard, Gerda Ring and Elisabeth Stub.
(photo:cinemateket) Directed by Victor Sjostrom and photgraphed by Julius Jaenzon, the first of Gustaf Molander’s screenplays to become well known was Terje Vigen (1916), from the poem by Henrik Ibsen. The intertitles being from the poem, the structure of a poem would accomodate the structure of a silent film, and yet the film shows that there was beginning to be a grammar to film technique of its own. Edison’s 1912 The Charge of the Light Brigade has a similar use of the lines from the poem as intertitles and there had been an adaptation by the Independent Motion Picture Company of Hiawatha (1909) with Gladys Hulette as well. The 1912 poem Vanteenheittajat, written in Finland by Eino Leino, was to be filmed shortly after its publication by director Kaarle Halme as Summer (Kesa) with Hilma Rantanen. In regard to film preservation, the film Terje Vigen was rediscovered from a German print in 2004 and the translated restored intertitles charmingly read Svenska Biografteatern at the top framed by their owl logo and are in the from of stanzaic quotation, their being expository. The opening sequence is shot beuatifully and shows Victor Sjostrom portraying Terje Vigen as elderly against a background of the ocean at night during a storm in a series of shots during which he is filmed in blue tint and is shown framed by a doorway in adjacent masked shots alternating between over-the-shoulder and strait on shots, our sharing his view of the storm as well as watching his looking out into it. The intertitles then take the form of narrator as the film cuts to a restropective scene shot in a sepia-like red of Sjostrom as a young man aboard a ship to begin the storyline. Tytti Soila writes, ”The film also established the term ‘literary cinema’ in Sweden.” When reviewed in the United States, the film was seen as ”forcefull despite its occaisional indulgence in too much sentimentality and moralizing.” Bengt Forslund writing about the film notes, ”the explanation is undoubtedly that the description of Nature plays such a major role. It is really the sea that has the main part, like the mountains in The Outlaw and His Wife and the dust strom in Sjostrom’s last major work, The Wind. Appearing in the film with Victor Sjostrom are Bergliot Husberg, Edith Erastoff and August Falck. Molander had written Miller’s Dokument (1916), directed by Konrad Tallroth and starring Greta Almroth, before writing for Sjöström. Later, with his film Defiance (Trots, 1952) Molander was to introduce another screenwriter to modern audiences, Vilgot Sjöman (Lek pa regnbagen, Playing on the Rainbow, 1958). The film begins the story of Terje Vigen aboard a ship, the early exterior shots including his climbing the mast. Sjostrom cuts from an extreme longshot to a full shot of Terje Vigen sitting on the mast. His wife in the film is portrayed by Swedish silent film actress Bergliot Husberg the interior shots in which she is shown with are for the main part non-tinted. Sjostrom is seen in the foreground of a midshot during a tinted exterior shot and then, during the shot, runs from the camera to the background of the shot, the camera then returning to an exterior midshot of the husband and wife. To reinforce his use of the Scandinavian landscape and the foreground of the shot as a source of compositional depth, the interior scenes are again, contrastingly, non-tinted intercut with shots of Terje Vigen silhouetted in the froeground of the shot in front of the expanse of the night sea, the film tinted blue. During the film, the movement within the composition of the frame is often that of the sea. Act Two beins with Terje Vigen having eluded his pursuers. He is show in the foreground of the shot in his skiff rowing against the background of the sea, spotted in a vignette circled masked shot of his pursuers telescope. Crosses at a graveyard are silhouetted against the ocean’s horizon to end Act Two. Act Three begins with the same scene that was used to being the film, Sjostrom as elderly looking toward the ocean at night. He leaves his cottage to kneel on the beach, the waves crashing against the rock. Sjostrom espies a sinking craft admist the pounding surf and boards his skiff to aid in their rescue, the ship tossing in the spray of the ocean. In a later shot, Sjostrom leaves his cottage as Edith Erastoff sails away, the film ending with a shot of the crosses at the graveyard near the ocean.
Writing about Victor Sjöström and quoted by Charlotte de Silva for the Embassy of Sweden in London, Jon Wengström of the Swedish Film Institute writes, ”The pictorial compositions in Havsgamar/Sea Vultures (1916) and the complex narrative structure in the recently rediscovered Dodskyssen/Kiss of Death (1916) show a director in full command of the medium.” In addition to The Kiss of Death (Dodskyssen,four reels), in which Sjöström playing a double role and which not only uses retrospective narrative but also includes the use of double exposures, in 1916 Sjöström directed the films Ships that Meet (Skepp som Motas) with Lili Bech and August Warberg, Therese, a melodrama which had included intercutting and retrospective narrative starring Lars Hanson and She Was Victorious (Hon segrade) , in which he starred with Lili Bech and Jenny Tschernichin-Larsson. Mauritz Stiller directed The Fight for His Heart (Kampen om hans hjarta), starring Karin Molander, His Wedding Night (Hans brollopsnatt), The Lucky Brooch (Lyckonalen), starring Greta Almroth and The Mine Pilot. The most widely known of Stiller’s films from 1916 were The Ballet Primadonna (Balettprimadonnan) with Lars Hanson, Love and Journalism (Karleck och journalistik) with Karin Molander and The Wings (Vigarne), a film in which photographer Julius Jaenzon appears on the screen.
Appearing on the screen as as an actor as well, Edmond Hansen at Svenska Biografteatern during 1916 wrote and directed the films The Consequences of Jealousy (Svartsjukans foljder) with Eric Petschler, Stina Berg and Ellis Elis and Old Age and Folly (Alderdom och darskap) with Edith Erastoff and Greta Almroth. He that year directed Love’s Wanderings (Karlekens irrfarder), photographed by Carl Florin and starring Nicolay Johannsen and Greta Pfeil as well as Pa detta numera vanliga satt, starring Greta Almroth and Jenny Tschenichin Larsson.
Among the films directed by George af Klerker during 1916 was Aktiebolaget Halsans gava, the first film photographed by cinematographer Gustav A Gustafson and the first film in which actress Tekla Sjöblom was to appear. Also starring in the film are Mary Johnson and Anna Löfström. Tekla Sjoblom began as an actress in 1916, her having appeared in Georg af Klercker’s film The Gift of Health (Aktieboolaget Halsans gava), photographed by Carl Gustav Florin. That year the Swedish director Georg af Klercker also directed Under the Spell of Memories (I minnenas band), written and photographed by Sven Pettersson and starring Elsa Carlsson, Tora Carlsson and Elsa Berglund, as well as having written and directed Triumph of Love (Karleken segrar), starring Mary Johnson, Tekla Sjoblom, Selma Wiklund Klerker and Lily Cronwin in the first film in which she was to appear and Mother in Law Goes for a Stroll (Svarmor pa vift) starring Greta Johansson, Maja Cassel and Zara Backman. Also that year, Geoge af Klercker wrote and directed the film Calle’s New Clothes (Calles nya klader), starring Mary Johnson and Tekla Sjoblom, and Calle as a Millionaire (Calle som miljonar), the first film in which actress Helge Kihlberg was to appear. Actress Gerda Thome Mattssen appearred in two films directed by George af Klerker, the first having been Hogsta visten(1916), in which the director George af Klerker is seen with heron screen as an actor. During 1916, Klerker was allowed to film more professionally in a larger studio, on Otterhallan and in Castles, one being at Borshuset. The running time of the films of George af Klercker that year went from those of a half hour duration, to those lasting an hour. One Swedish webpage can be quoted when looking for the use of landscape in Swedish films and the filming of a direct relationship betwee the motifs in nature and those that develope character, ”Like Stiller and Sjöström is af Klerker sparse with the custom of closes-up. that he on your height uses that dramatic effective emphasis in an enviornment that total to be dominated of the entire picture format.
In 1916, F. Magnussen directed Victor Sjostrom, Lili Bech and Lars Hanson in the film The Gold Spider (Guldspindeln), photographed by Hugo Edlund for Svenska Biografteatern.
Captain Grogg’s Wonderful Journey (Kapten Grogg’s underbara resa) in 1916 introduced to Swedish audiences a series of films showcasing the animation of director Victor Bergdahl that would continue untill 1922. One of two films directed by Bergdahl that would use animation to narrate circus stories, Cirkus Fjollinski, also appeared that year.
As part of its Women and the Silent Screen series held June 11-13, 2008, the Cinematecket in Stockholm will be screening a the 1916 Danish film The Queen of the Stock Exchange (Die Borsenkonigin), written and directed by Edmund Edel. The film is from the Nederlands Filmmuseum. Paired with the film will be the trailer to the lost film The Sunken (Die Gesunkenen, Rudolf Walther-Fein, 1925) also starring Asta Nielsen, a film in which she costarred with the actress Olga Tschechova.
In the United States, Lillian Gish during appeared in the films Sold for Marriage, Flirting with Fate and Pathways of Life. Mae Marsh had made Hoodoo Ann (five reels) for Triangle as well as The Wharf Rat (five reels). Mary Pickford that year was filming under the direction of John B. O’Brien, for whom she made three films five reels in legnth, The Eternal Grind, The Foundling and Hulda from Holland. That year she also starred in Poor Little Peppina (Sidney Olcott, seven reels) and Less Than Dust (John Emerson, seven reels). silent film actress Corrine Griffith, ”The Orchid Lay of the Screen”, appeared in the film The Last Man in 1916.
Triangle Film Corporation had been formed in late 1915 to combine the efforts of Thomas Ince, D. W. Griffith and Mack Sennett. Sennett, who began at Biograph as an actor under Griffith had founded Keystone Studios in 1912. Not only was Sennett present at Biograph and Triangle with Griffith, but as a pioneer of silent film his name is alongside Griffith’s in his contribution to the development of film technique and the development of a grammar of film, a grammar of scene construction. It may well be that the comedies of Mack Sennett have their origin in, or are a continuation of, the earliest of narrative films that prior to 1907, and prior to Griffith’s joining Biograph, had brought together a cinema of attractions with films that depicted action, or the chase film. Just as Swedish silent film directors would use nature and landscape as a visual language, comedy would rely upon the visual in its use of the sight-gag. Among the comedies of 1912 were Love, Speed and Thrills directed by silent film director Mack Sennett and Love, Loot and Crash, also directed by the silent film pioneer Sennett, both films currently in public domain and both presently offered online by the Internet Archive, who were kind enough to write to the present writer and who it is sincerely hoped that in the future they will return again as my reader.
At Keystone in 1914 Mack Sennett had directed the first films of Charlie Chaplin, Making a Living and the silent film Kid Auto Races at Venice. In 1915, the silent film The Tramp would introduce a Chaplin character that would become familiar to audiences untill the end of the silent era.Silent comedian Charlie Chaplin would in 1916 leave Essanay studios, where he had made fourteen films, to film two-reel comedies with the Mutual Company, where he filmed The Immigrant (1917). Anthony Slide writes that Chaplin used as much film to shoot The Immigrant as D. W. Griffith had to film The Birth of A Nation. It was also at Mutual, where Chaplin had made eight films untill 1923, that Chaplin would film his first full legnth feature as director.
In 1912, while Stiller was beginning to film comedy in Sweden and Mack Sennet was beginning to film at Keystone, one of the other studios to produce comedies was Vitagraph. After joining Vitagraph in 1910, a studio for which he appeared in the film A Tale of Two Cities (1911) with Florence Turner and Norma Talmadge, John Bunny quickly became one of the most beloved of early silent screen comedians, teaming with Flora Finch in 1912 for films that included A Cure for Pokeritis, Stenographers Wanted, Irene’s Fascination, and The Suit of Armor. The 1913 film Queen for A Day with John Bunny and the 1915 film Unusual Honeymoon with Flora Finch was screened July 30,2005 in Rosslyn, Virginia, near Arlington Virginia, as part of their film festival of silent comedies, which opened July 28 with the film Pool Sharks and a retrospective of the films of Mack Sennet, including Billy Bevan in the film Hoboken to Hollywood (1928).

Three years before Intolerance (Griffith), Eustace Ball in the volume The Art of the Photoplay advised, ”Put one plot at a time; the single reel picture lasts only eighteen minutes and only one line can be worked out well in this time. This is another important detail in which the photoplay differes from the drama.”

The Sunbeam, the first film written by June Mathis appeared on the screen during the year 1916 and Frank Lloyd would direct his first film, The Code of Marcia Gray (five reels), King Vidor his first film, Intrigue. Louise Glaum would that year star in The Wolf Woman (five reels). John Gilbert appeared in the films Apostle of Vengence, Bullets and Brown Eyes (five reels), The Eye of Night, Hell’s Hinges and The Phantom and Lewis Stone appeared in his first films, The Man Who Found Out (1915) and Honor’s Altar (Raymond B. West, 1916, five reels).

In directing The Girl From Marsh Croft (Tosen fran Stormyrtopet, 1917) for AB Svenska Biografteatern, Victor Sjostrom began a marriage between novel and film in his adapting the novels of Selma Lagerlof-one that would establish Swedish silent cinema as being f ilmic poetry. It is also his screenplay, as are the other screenplays he adapted from her novels, each of them having been reviewed by Lagerlöf. Writing in 1971 that the films of Swedish silent cinema were those to which ”the prescence of mountain and pastoral landscapes gave a dimension of authenticity and elemental persuasiveness”, Peter Cowie remarks upon Sjöström’s use of bucolic subjects, David Robinson upon Sjöström’s depiction of man’s relationship to nature. Both find something spiritual or supernatural to the writings of Selma Lagerlöf, as though within the relation to the character’s surroundings there is a solitude. Lauritzen noted that there is often the ”juxtaposition of man and nature” in early Swedish cinema. Although remarking upon the films of Brunius, Stiller and Sjöström not having had been distributed to large audiences, as were the films of Ernst Lubitsch (Passion) that had starred Pola Negri, author Lewis Jacobs writes, ”Opposed to the artificiality of the German films in their stress on the real world of nature, the sea and the landscape, Swedish pictures were impressive for their simplicity, realism, sensitive acting and sincerity.” Starring the actress Karin Molander, when reviewed in the United States, the film was commended for its ”unity of plot structure” and for ”all its dramatic elements (being) dramatically related, its development (being) climactic and consitent.”. Also in the film are Greta Almroth, Concordia Selander and Hilda Castegren in her first appearance on screen. The novel was in fact filmed again in 1947 by Gustaf Edgren and in 1958 by Gustav Ucicky with Maria Emo. Peter Cowie has put the films of Finnish director Ruani Mollberg (Earth is a Sinful Song, Maa on syntinen laula, 1973) alongside the films of Victor Sjöström and Mauritz Stiller, his writing, ”His characters move not against the backdrop of field and lake and forest, but deep within the enveloping topography.” To Bengt Forslund, Sjöström had found a ”descriptive visual language” which accounts for his collaboration with Selma Lagerlof and her novels being particularly suited for adaptation. Charles Magnusson in 1909 had hoped to film the novel The Wonderful Journey of Nils Holgersson, which Victor Sjöström had read with enthusiasm. Allan Eyles notes that The Covered Wagon (James Cruze, 1923), filmed in the United States, was remarkable for its depicting the relationships of the characters within narrative to the enviornment in which the story takes places, its plotline built around the interaction of its three primary characters.
Greta Garbo is quoted by Sven Broman as having said, ”I know that he courted Sarah Bernhardt and wanted to write plays for her…But Strindberg still managed to get Sarah Bernhardt to do a guest performance in Stockholm- in La Dame aux Camelias at the Royal Dramatic Theatre.”  Directing in 1912, Louis Mercanton had filmed Berhardt for four reels using only long, static shots; there are twenty three scenes in the film and of the twenty two intertitles, only three are interpolated. Most summarize the dialougue and its consequence to the action untill the exclamation in scene twenty one, ”May God forgive you, I never will.”.
Silent Film director director J. Gordon Edwards in 1917 would direct Cleopatra (ten reels) and Camille (six reels), written by Frances Marion, as well as Salome (seven reels), The Rose of Blood (six reels), The Forbidden Path and Under the Yoke (five reels). The Forbidden Path  like several of the films in which J. Gordon Edwards directed actress Theda Bara, is a lost film, and there are today no surviving copies in existence.  ,Frank Powell directed Heart of the Desert. A Modern Musketeer (five reels), directed and written by Allan Dwan, starred Marjorie Drew and Douglas Fairbanks. His first screen appearance had been in Bertie The Lamb. Frances Marion that year also wrote the photoplay to the film Temple of Dusk (James Young, five reels), her following it in 1919 with the scenarios to A Regular Girl (James Young, five reels), The World and its Woman (Frank Lloyd, seven reels) and The Cinema Murder (George Baker, five reels). Lillian Gish in 1917 had starred in the films The House Built Upon Sand (Ed Morrisey, five reels) with Kate Bruce and Souls Triumphant (John G. O’Brien, five reels) with Wilfred Lucas.
In addition to directing and starring with Gerda Thome-Mattsson and Tollie Zellmann in For hem och hard, Swedish director Georg af Klercker that year directed Mary Johnson in the films Revelj and The Suburban Vicar (Forstadprasten), in which she starred with Corcordia Selander and Lilly Graber. Actress Olga Hallgren appeared in two films directed by George Klerker, Brottmalsdomaren, with Gabriel Alw and the actor George Blickingborg in his first appearance on screen and Ett konst narsode with Greta Pfeil, the assistant director to the film, Manne Göthson. For hem och hard was photographed by Swedish cameraman Sven Pettersson, Brottmalsdomaren by Swedish cameraman Gustav A Gustafson and Ett konst narsode, by Carl Gustav Florin. In 1918 Klercker directed The Lighthouse Keeper’s Daughter (Fyrvaktarens dottar), Night Music (Nattliga toner), photographed by Gustav A Gustafson and starring Agda Helin, Helge Kihlberg and Tekla Sjöblom and Nobelpristagaren.
The director George af Klerker is portrayed by the actor Bjorn Granath in the film Jar ar Nyfiken film (Stig Björkman). The Last Scream, a two character play in one act, depicts a fictional meeting between silent film director George af Klerker and Charles Magnusson, founder of the Swedish Film Institute, and was written by Ingmar Bergman. The play was published by New Press in the volume The Fifth Act. And yet, the film Mysteriet natten till den 25ie prooves to be more enigmatic than its director. It stars Swedish actress Mary Johnson and Carl Barklind and was photographed by Sven Petersson- it was not shown to audiences untill 1975.
Konrad Tollroth in 1917 directed and starred with Lili Bech in The Bird of Paradise (Paradisfageln), directed and starred with Lisa Hakansson-Taube in Sig egen slav and directed and starred with Greta Almroth in Allt hamnar sig. That year he also directed Edith Erastoff in the film Chanson triste and Greta Almroth and Jenny Tschemichin-Larsson in the film Miljonarvet, and Karin Molander in the film Vem skot?. Egil Eide both directed and starred with Edith Erastoff in the films Every Man Forges his own Happiness (Envar sin egen lyckas smed) and Mrs. Bonnet’s Slip (Fru Bonnets felsteg), which also starred Karin Molander. F. Magnussen that year wrote and directed the films Jungeldrottingens smyke, photographed by Henrik Jaenzon and starring William Larsson, Den levande mumien, photographed by Hugo Edlund and starring William Larsson and The Secret of the Inn (Vardshusets hemlighet), starring Edith Erastoff.
1917 was to mark the first publication written by the Swedish author Swedish author Agnes von Krusenstjerna, the volume Nina’s Dagbook.
In Denmark, in 1917, Gunnar Tolnaes and Lilly Jacobsson were teamed for the first of two films, The Maharaja’s Favorite Wife (Mahatadjahen’s Yndlings Hustru), directed by Robert Dinesen and written by Sven Gade. Director August Blom was to direct both Tolnaes and Jacobsson in the 1919 film The Maharaja’s Favorite Wife 2 (Mahatadjahen’s Yndling Hustru 2).
Thomas Ince left the Triangle Motion Picture to form Thomas H. Ince Studios. One silent short that had belonged to Blackhawk Films, was a tour of the studios filmed by Hunt Stromberg between 1920-1922. An intertitle from Blackhawk Films reads, ”Insisting upon strict adherence to complete shootingscripts, Ince supervised the direction and editing of each picture and thus managed to give all the appearance of having been directed by Thomas H. Ince, regardless of who did actually direct.” The short, sent to exhibitors, shows footage of Ince viewing the rushes from the previous afternoon.
After Hearts of the World (1918, twelve reels), Griffith followed with The Great Love (1918, seven reels) for Famous Lasky Players, it starring Lillian Gish, Robert Harron and Rosemary Theby and with The Greatest Thing in Life (1918, seven reels), starring Lillian Gish, Robert Harron and Kate Bruce. In Hearts of the World, during a scene in which soldiers are marching, he used reverse direction cutting, which he had briefly used in A Girl and Her Trust (1912). Matching the screen direction when the camera cut had often preserved continuity in early silent cinema. Part of Sjöström’s directing included placing objects in an anglular relation to the camera. He reversed the direction of the character’s profile when cutting back between full shots and close ups of the same shot and cut ins of the exterior landscape in the use of varying camera distance, the size of the object within the frame of each shot, the composition within the rectangle of the frame, also varying, it becoming ”a screen technique of close up and cutback to clarify plot movement, intensify emotional content” (Ramsaye). The dramatic interest is as though fastened to the character, the attention of the spectator directed to him or her within the relation of each shot to the shots that are subsequent to them, composition decided upon in accordance with editing; an element of the scene could be included in the interest of the scene by the director with each decision as to where to position the camera. It may often be that character interest can be enhanced by thematic meaning and its processes, as something that is reiterated at different junctures of events and as a background to the developing relationships between characters, their interactions, it being that thematic meaning, within narrative, is enacted. It is not only landscape that can provide a backdrop that will develop the atmosphere within a film, but there is also the script, mood advanced with and by plotline, the character bringing unity to the narrative. In that both are elemnts of composition, the use of nature as a background and mise-en scene are part and parcel of each other, subject positioning being not only that characters interact not only with the spectator but also with mise en scene reflecting that spatial temporality is the interplay between mise en scene and the film’s characters, characters that move into the space seperating the objects in the film, characters that move in front of and behind objects within the frame, characters that inhabit the space in which they are seen. If narrative organization could be provided by the use of mise en scene, mise en scene that would include within the spatial arrangement of composition the figure of the character within subject positioning, narrative clarity could be provided by the use of camera positions and the editorial devices of technique. There is a unique use of reverse direction in the opening sequences of F. W. Murnau’s film Sunrise (nine reels) where the screen direction of adjacent shots is reversed while being incorporated into the montage, the montage effect, of the sequence.
During Orphans of the Storm, Griffith reverses the screen direction of close shots during a dialouge scene by inserting a shot of the absent Lillian Gish. After a dialouge intertitle of it being announced that the character is to marry a Princess of the Blood, Griffith cuts from a close shot in profile of the character facing the left edge of the frame to an interpolated shot of Gish as his beloved and object of his reverie, her facing the left edge of the frame, the camera then cutting back to the conversation and original close shot of his facing the left edge of the frame, Griffith reversing the screen direction while both are in close shot. In effect, the shot functions as disruptive-associative montage, the shots linked thematicly by their placement in the sequence. It very well could be that the use of spatial discontinuity, the cutting to a different location during the scene, harkens back to the cinema of attractions and the use of brief static shots for effect, a single shot with its own aesthetic value included into the narrative as being seperate, editing and camera placement articulating the erotic as thematic within narrative through the use of the eroticism of display. When seen by Norwegian director Tancred Ibsen, Orphans of the Storm was one of the films included in his decision to go to Hollywood, albeit none of the scripts he wrote while there were realized.
Silent Film director J. Gordon Edwards in 1918 directed actress Theada Bara in the film Her Greatest Love, and if it seems like there is no bridge between Griffith and other directors that were his contemporaries in his later career, particularly De Mille, the subject matter of the film is ”founded on the novel Months, by Ouida”; the first British novel to depict a divorced woman as happily remarried, and yet the novel is all that there is to go on other than magazine articles from the time period, the film itself is lost.

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Scott Lord on Silent Film

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Lost Film: Novelization of serial appeared in Photoplay 1918)

Photoplay (Sep – Dec 1918)

This film is a lost film. There are no surviving copies of the movie. What I did find was its novelization in Photoplay Magazine 1918. It is The Eagles Eye directed by Georege Lessey and Wellington Player. We cannot view the film, but can read the novelization as it appeared to theater audiences in magazine form. The film starred actress Marguerite Snow.

Silent Film

Swedish Film

      An e-mailed letter to the present author ends, ”Many people in Sweden says that Greta Garbo is a main collector’s item but the Garbo posters didn’t fetch much interest.” It was sent by a collector of movie posters who had been to the movie poster auction in Gothenburg, Sweden, which was held as part of the Gothenburg Film Festival, February, 2006. Included in the auction were two posters from the film A Two Faced Woman.
As there was speculation as to what script could possibly bring Greta Garbo back to the silver screen, as Eva Henning and Viveca Lindfors were being introduced to Swedish audiences and as Ingmar Bergman was laying the beginnings of a body of film that would secure him as the director that would circulate the films of the Swedish Film Institute into an international viewing, Ingrid Bergman was in the United States making the 1946 film Notorius with Alfred Hitchcock, her earlier having appearred in the film Dr. Jeckyll and Mr. Hyde (1941). It was also at this time that there would be a remake of Anna Karenina, starring Vivien Leigh and directed by Julien Duuvier.
From a script co-written by Birgit Tengroth based on her short stories, Three Strange Loves ( Thirst, Torst 1949), directed for Svensk Filmindustri by Ingmar Bergman and photographed by Gunnar Fischer, had starred Mimi Nelson, Eva Henning and Hasse Ekman. Birgit Tengroth also appears in the film. Hugo Bolander filmed as an assistant director with Ingmar Bergman and Oscar Rosander edited the film. Bergman writes that the film is in fact about a journey and that his aim was that the ”complicated camera movements” be unnoticed by the audience; ”you can see the seems if you look closely” (Ingmar Bergman). Bergman, during an interview with Swedish author Jonas Sima, had remarked, ”I like Eva very much. She was an extraordinarily fine actress.” Before Eva Henning appeared in The Banquet (Banketten, 1948), she had also appeared in Elvira Madigan (1943) and The Royal Rabble ( Kungliga patrasket, 1945) which also starred its director, Hasse Ekman. Ekman directed her with Alf Kjellin in 1945 in the film Wish on the Moon (Vandring med mannen). In 1947 she appeared with Sonja Wigert in his film One Swallow Doesn’t Make A Summer (En fluga gor ingen sommar). Hasse Ekman had begun directing with With You In My Arms (Med dej i mina armar, 1940), the first film in which Elsie Allbin was to appear, it being followed by First Division (Forsta Divisionen, 1941) in which he and Lars Hanson starred. In 1942 he directed Ingrid Tiblad in Langor i dunklet and Marguerite Viby in Luck Arrives (Lyckan kommar). While comparing Swedish actresses of the thirties, Tytti Soila writes that Royal Dramatic Theater (Kungliga Dramatiska Teatern) ”actors were easy to identify thanks to their inflated and stylized acting and above all-after the introduction of sound film- by their unnatural manner of delivering lines. Actors like Lars Hanson and Inga Tiblad never succeded in liberating themselves from this formal style of acting” Apparently this was not entirely to the dismay of Swedish audiences, as their films were still popular in Sweden.
In 1943 Hasse Ekman continued with the films Unexpected Meeting, Change of Trains (Om byte ar tage), with Sonja Wigert and The Sixth Shot (Sjatte Skottet), written by G?sta Stevens and starring Edvin Adolphson, Karin Ekelund and Gunn Wallgren. In 1944 he directed Lars Hanson again in His Excellency (Excellensen), with Gunnar Sjoberg and Erik Hampe Faustman as well as having directed A Day Will Dawn (En Dag Skall gry) with Edvin Adolphson for Sandrews Productions.
Swedish Film In 1946 the director filmed Nightly Encounter (Meeting in the Night/Mote i nattan) starring Eva Dahlbeck and When The Door Was Closed (When The Door Was Locked, Medan portan var stangd), all of which were films in which he had starred. Writing about the premiere of A Ship Bound for India (Skepp till Indialand, 1947), a film which had been based on a play by Martin Soderhjelm that had starred Gertrude Fridh, Ingmar Bergman describes a meeting with Hasse Ekman with ”an unbelievably gorgeous Eva Henning at his side.” The film was produced by Terrafilm.
Girl with Hyacinths (Flicka och hycintar, 1950) had again brought Eva Henning to the screen, it starring Anders Ek and directed by Ekman. The film is listed as being one of the favorites screenings of director Ingmar Bergman. Bordwell and Thompson, in a Bloglines RSS entitled Observations on film art and Film Art, blog that there are ten retrospective narrative scene-sequences in Girl with Hyacinths, but more notably relate that these retrospective narratives interlock. During the previous year Eva Henning had appeared with Hasse Ekman in his film The Girl From the Gallery/The Girl in the Third Row (Flickan fran tredje raden), which had also starred Maj-Britt Nilsson. Ekman directed the film for Terra Film.
She then made The White Cat (1951) (Den vita katten) with Gunnar Bjornstrand and Alf Kjellin and Gabrielle (1954), photographed by Gunnar Fischer and also starring Karin Molander, both of which films were also directed by Ekman. In 1948, Ekman directed Each Goes His Own way (Var sin vag) with Eva Dahlbeck and Gosta Cederlund and Little Marta Returns (Lilla Marta kommer till baka), produced by Terrafilm.
Viveca Lindfors began acting on the screen with the director Ivar Johanson in the films The Spinning Family (Snurriga Familjens, 1940), scripted by Torsten Lundquist and starring Annalisa Ericson, Imagine If I Marry the Vicar (Tank, Om Jag Gifter Mig Med Prasten), a Swedish Karleksdrama based on a novel by Ester Linden and starring Gudron Brost, Arne Mattsson the assistant director to the Swedish Karleksdrama, (1941) and The Yellow Ward / The Yellow Clinic (Gula Kliniken, 1942), with Anna Lindahl, Barbro Kollberg, Karin Kavli, Gull Natorp, Ruth Stevens and Mona Martenson. She then appeared with Birgitta Valberg in In Paradise (I Paradis, 1941) directed by Per Lindgren and with Gudron Brost in The Sins of Anna Lans (Anna Lans, 1943) a Swedish Karleksdrama directed by Rune Carlsten and photographed by Ernst Westerberg, it having been the first film in which actress Toivo Pawlo was to appear. Black Roses (Svarta Rosor, 1945), directed by Rune Carlsten, a remake of the earlier film, would star Viveca Lindfors with Eva Dahlbeck and Ulf Palme. G?sta Cederlund directed Lindfors in The Brothers’ Woman (Brodernas kvinna, 1943), based on a novel by Ebba Richert and starring Britta Holmgren. The film was produced by Film AB Lux.
Eric Petschler, who had directed Greta Garbo in Sweden before she had travelled to the United States, appeared as an actor with Lindfors in the film Jag ar eld och luft (1944) directed by Anders Henrikson, the assistant director to the film G?sta Folke.
One of the first films that Arne Mattsson was to direct, Marie in the Windmill (Maria pa Kvarngarden, 1945) had starred Viveca Lindfors, it also featuring the daughter of Victor Sj?str?m, Guje Lagerwall, as well as Edvin Adolphson, Irma Christensen, Linnea Hillberg and Rune Carlsten. In 1946, Lindfors starred with the director Hasse Ekman in his film (In the Waiting Room of Death(Interlude/I dodens vantrum) which had been based on a novel by Sven Stolpes, the assistant director to the film Bengt Ekerot. Like Greta Garbo she later came to the United States to make film. Among those in which Lindfors had appearred were The Adventures of Don Juan (1948) and The Raiders (1952). Swedish Film actress Mai Zetterling would decide upon England. Before later returning to Sweden, she appearred in several British films, the first of which, Frieda (1947), her performance having had been being under the direction of Basil Dearden. In 1948, Mai Zetterling was to appear in Terence Fischer’s Potrait from Life, her then having appeared in the films The Bad Lord Byron (Macdonald), The Lost People (Knowles) and The Romantic Age (Greville).
Having read the script to the adaptation and having agreed to make the film,in 1949 Garbo made a thirteen minute screentest in black and white for La Duchesse de Langeais shot by William Daniels and James Wong Howe.
”I thanked him by leaving for Svensk Filmindustri, where Gustaf Molander had meaninwhile made a film out my original screenplay, Woman without a Face.” Filmed under Victor Sj?str?m, the cinematographer to Kvinna utan ansikte (1947), scripted by Ingmar Bergman, was Ake Dahlqvist. The film stars Alf Kjellin, Gunn Wallgren, Anita Bj?rk and Marianne Lofgren.
Photographed by Goran Strindberg and directed by Alf Sj?berg, Miss Julie (Froken Julie, 1950) begin with a series of exterior shots, often cutting in close up shots with long and full shots, almost as though to supplant the establishing shot with the use of an entire scene before it introducing two initially minor characters in a kitchen by showing the title character, potrayed by Anita Bj?rk, evesdropping on them. He uses a horse drawn carriage to connect the interior dialouge of the one-act play to the open countryside, using long shots from different camera positions. As the film continues, Sj?berg uses statues and a lake during exterior shots of a garden to connect the characters to the landscape , which can nearly seem pastoral as the film begins to depend more and more upon the dramatic acting of Bj?rk. The film then shifts to a legnthy interior dialouge scene as the two characters decide whether to leave the country and begin again together. The film concludes by Miss Julie being last seen in an exterior reestablishing shot. While writing about The Road to Heaven (Himlaspelet), Cowie attributes S?berg as being a director that ”could reconcile the alfresco scope of the cinema” with the compressed acting and dialouge that comprises the playwright’s articulation of the visual on the stage. Sj?berg had in fact returned to the theater after having directed Anders Henrikson The Strongest (Den Starkaste, 1929). Author Peter Cowie goes so far as to write, ”But during the thirties Sjöberg was ostracized by the film industry. So keen was the appetite for frivolous domestic comedies that a director of Sjöberg’s intent incongruous at the studious.” Examining Sj?berg’s adaptation of the Strindberg play, Tytti Soila views the subject positioning of the Anita Bj?rk character as the use of the theatrical within film to structure the look of the character, ”The object of her desire is her possibility of knowing and the consequences of knowledge: more than sexual satisfaction and love, the drama is about acquiring sexual experience and knowledge about sex.” Ostensibly, the feminine gaze as a desire to acquire knowledge about sexual relations is also thematic in Vilgot Sj?man two films I am Curious Yellow and I am Curious Blue. The film Home from Babylon (Hem fran Babylon, 1941), starring Gerd Hagman, marks the beginning of Alf Sjoberg’s return from the theater to to film . Alf Sj?berg directed Maj-Britt Nilsson in her first film, Journey Out (Resanbort, 1945), photographed by Martin Bodin and starring Gunn Wallgern and Hjordis Petterson. In 1946 Sjöberg paired Mai Zetterling and Alf Kjellin in Iris and the Lieutenant (Iris och lojnantshjarta). Froken Julie was produced by noted author and film historian Rune Walderkranz for A B Sandrew.
After filming Sonja Wigert in And All These Women (…och alla dessa kvinnor, 1944) Arne Mattsson continued directing in 1945 with the comedy Sussie, written by S?lve Cederstrand and starring Gunnar Bj?nstrand and Marguerite Viby and the films Incorrigible (1946) and Bad Eggs (Rottagg, 1946), scripted by Sven Zetterström and photographed by Sten Dahlgren and starring Marianne Lofgren, Ingrid Backlin, Harriet Philpson and Elsie Allbin. In 1946 Arne Mattsson also directed Gunnar Bjornstrand in the film Peggy pa Vift, starring Gunnel Brostrom and Marguerite Viby, and, in 1947, followed with the film Father Wanted (Pappa sokes), starring Gunnar Bj?nstrand and Sickan Carlsson.
1946 was to mark the film Det eviga leendet being on the theater marquees in Sweden, it being the film that would introduce Eva Lombard. The film was written and directed by Lars Eric Leidholm and starred Barbro Hogstadius. Eva Dahlbeck that year appearred in Rolf Husberg’s film Love Goes Up and Down/Love and Downhill Skiing (Karlek och stortlopp), starring Agneta Lagerfelt, Signe Furst, Hjordis Petterson and Karin Miller in her first on screen appearance. Agneta Lagerfelt would also that year appear in Rolf Husberg’s film Evening at Djurgarden (Djurgardsikvallar), phototographed by Julius Jaenzon and starring Ingrid Bjork, Naima Wifstrand and Emy Hagman as well as the film Kvinnor i vantrum, directed by Gösta Folke, written by Solve Cederstand and photographed by Eric Blomberg. The film stars Britta Holmberg, Anna Lindahl and Solveig Lagström. Eic Blomberg that year was also the cinematographer for the film Wedding at Sun Island (Brollopet Pa Solo), directed by Ivar Johansson and starring Rut Holm, Emy Hagman and Sibrit Molin in what was to be her first appearance on the screen. Nils Poppe in 1946 would direct The Balloon (Ballongen), with Marianne Aminoff, Inga Landgre, Marianne Lögren, Ingrid Borthen and Marianne Gyllenhammar. Schamyl Bauman that year directed the film Saltwater Spray and Tough Old Boys (Saltstank och Krutgubbar) photographed by Sven Nykvist and starring Irma Christensen, Gull Natorp and Inrid Ostergren.
Finnish film director Teuvo Tulio directed actress Regina Linnanheimo in two films during 1946, The Cross of Love (Rakkauden risti/Karleckens kors) and Restless Blood (Levoton veri/Orolist blod). He followed in 1947 by directing her in the film In the Grips of Passion (Intohimon vallasa/I ledelsens famn). Finnish actress Helena Karan that year appeared in the film Ruined Youth (Tuhotto nuoruus), directed by Hanu Leminen.
Ake Ohberg in 1948 directed Where the Wind Blows (Dit Vindarna Bar), the first film in which Ingrid Thulin was to appear. In the film are also George Fant and Eva Strom. Elof Ahrle that year directed Livet pa Forsbyholm, photographed by Julius Jaenzon. That year Gosta Werner directed Maj-Britt Nilsson in The Street (Gatans). Arne Mattsson that year directed the film Dangerous Spring (Farlig var). Erik Hampe Faustman in 1948 directed Eva Dahlbeck in the film Lars Hard and George Fant with Illona Weiselmann in the film Foreign Port (Fremmande hamn/Strange Harbor). Anders Henrikson in 1948 directed Eva Dahlbeck in the film The Girl From the Mountain Village (Flickan fran fjallbyn).
Swedish FilmPhotographed by Gunnar Fischer and edited by Oscar Rosander, Port of Call (Hamnstad, 1948) starred Nine Christine Jonsson as the central character in a script written by Olle Lansberg titled The Gold and the Walls, the film ”shot on location in Gotheburg, with interiors at the SF studios in Stockholm” (Peter Cowie) where the camerawork of Bergman begins showing not only the enviornment in which the characters find the situations that emerge around them, but also what may isolate the character while involved with the development of plotline events as he or she develops as character. Also in the film are Bergit Hall, Mimi Nelson, Birgitta Valberg and Britta Billsten. Jorn Donner remarks upon Port of Call as being noteworthy for its ”unsentimental tone” in regard to the narrative and its exposition of storyline, and for there being a uniformity to the style in regard to the technique used in the film. In Images, Ingmar Bergman writes that he tried to include as many exteriors as he could in order to create something new with Swedish cinema that would include the use of realism. Jorn Donner in fact attributes the film with having brought a realism to its character portrayal and goes so far as to invoke the camerawork of Stiller and Sjostrom in that Bergman uses the enviornment to bring the development of its characters to the depth that ends the film.
In 1949 Arne Mattsson directed Victor Sj?str?m in The Railroad Men (Rallare), based on a novel by Olle Lansberg. It was photographed by Martin Bodin who had worked with Arne Mattsson on the film A Guest Came (Det kom en gast, 1947) with Sture Lagerwall and Anita Bj?rk. Mattsson again directed Sj?str?m in Hard klang (1952) with Margit Carlqvist and Edvin Adolphson and Men in Darkness (Mannen i Morker, 1955). In 1949 he also directed Woman in White (Kvinna i vitt) with Mimi Nelson and Eva Dahlbeck.
In her autobiography, All Those Tommorows, Mai Zetterling writes, ”Music in the Dark was to be my first and last picture with Ingmar Bergman directing. It was in 1947…Music in the Dark was basically a sentimental love story about a man who goes blind through an accident and a young girl who falls in love with him. What Ingmar was interested in was the man’s loss of identity, his lonliness and his despair.” She continues candidly and with all kindness to describe her relationship with Bergman as an actress at that time as not having brought enough to her performance and that she looked to Alf Sj?berg for inspiration. Musik i Morker (Night is My Future) was photographed by Göran Strindberg and stars Hilda Borgstr?m, Gunnar Bj?rnstrand and Birger Malmsten. Jorn Donner writes, ”Compared with Port of Call, Night is My Future seems to be an almost completely commercial film. In his autobiography Images, Bergman writes that he had in fact directed the film with the thought of it being enjoyable to watch
Theaters in 1947 were to see the script writing of Rune Walderkranz, cowriting with Ragnar Arvedson on a film that Arvedson co-directed with Schamyl Bauman, Maj pa Malo, photographed by Sven Nykvist and starring Inga Landre. Rune Waldekranz that year produced the film Life in the Finn Woods (Livet i Flunskogarna), directed by Ivar Johansson and phtographed by Eric Blomberg. Starring are Sigbrit Molin, Barbro Ribbing, Mirjami Kuosmanen and Nine-Christine Jonsson. It was also the year that Song of Stockholm (Sangen om Stockholm) , would be shown on the theater screens of Sweden. Directed by Elof Ahrle, the film stars Hilda Borström, Alice Babs, Karin Swenson and Marianne Gyllenhammar. Audiences would also be reintroduced to actress Eva Dahlbeck, who appeared in the film The Key and the Ring (Nyckeln och Ringen), under the direction of Anders Henrikson. The film was photographed by Harald Berglund and scripted by Swedish silent film screenwriter Bertil Malberg. Also starring in the film were Aino Taube, Ulla Sallert, Hild Bögström and Maj Töblad. Henrikson would again direct Eva Dahlbeck in 1948 in the film The Girl from the Mountain Village (Flickan fran fjallbyn), photographed by Bertil Palmgren and written by Sven Gustafson. The film also stars Kerstin Holmber and Sif Ruud. Inger Juel would appear in her first film in 1947, The Most Beautiful in the World (Det Vackraste Pa Jorden), also directed by Anders Henrikson and starring Marianne Lofgren. Gosta Bernhard directed his first two films in 1947, 91:an Karlssons permis and En sommarweekend. Sture Lagerwall went from actor to director with the film Here We Are Coming (Har kommer vi) in 1947, scripted by Torsten Lundquist, Greta Garbo biographer Fritiof Billquist and Marianne Aminoff having appeared in the film. The film was co-directed with actor John Zacharias, as was the film I Love You, Karlsson (Jag Elskar Dig, Karlsson) in which he starred with Marguerite Viby, Viveca Serlachius, Solveig Lagstrom and Linnea Hillberg. The cinematographer to the film was Rudolf Frederiksen. Lagerwall appeared as an actor in Gunnar Skoglund’s film How to Love (Konsten att alska, 1947) with Wanda Rothgardt and in Bengt Palm’s film The Night Watchman’s Wife (Nattvaktens hustru, 1948) with Britta Holmberg, a film which was produced by AB Centrumfilm. Gosta Folke that year directed Maj-Britt Nilsson in the film Maria. Stig Jarrel in 1947 directed and appeared in the films Evil Eyes and The Sixth Commandment (Sjatte Budet), which also starred Ingrid Backlin and Gosta Cederlund. Lars-Eric Kjellin directed his first film that year, Don’t Give Up (Tappan inte sugen), starring Ulla Sallert and Annalisa Erickson and photographed by Gunnar Fischer. Eva Dahlbeck that year appeared in the film Two Women (Tva kvinnor), directed by Arnold Sj?strand. Eric Hampe Faustman in 1947 directed the Viking-medieval adventure film Harald the Stalwart (Harald Handfaste), with George Ryderberg and George Fant. Anita Bj?rk that year appeared in the film No Way Back (Ingen vag till backa), written and directed by Edvin Adolphson. Ragnar Arvedson that year directed Edvin Adolphson and Karin Ekelund in the film Dinner for Two (Supe for tva), with Mimi Pollack, it having been the first film in which actress Ann-Mari Wiman was to appear. Swedish actress Monica Nielsen appeared in her first film in 1947, Kvarterets Olycksfagel directed by P. G. Holmgren with Ella Lindblom and Lillemor Appelgren.
Swedish Film-EvaThe following year, Gustaf Molander continued directing with the film Life Starts Now (Nuborjar livet, 1948), photographed by Ake Dahlqvist, edited by Oscar Rosnader and written by Rune Lindstrom and starring Wanda Rothgardt and Mai Zetterling. The Trumpet Player and the Lord (Trumpetar och Var Henne), a film written by Ingmar Bergman was became an opportunity for he and Gustaf Molander to script the film Eva (1948), directed by Molander and photographed by Ake Dahlqvist, with Eva Stiberg in the title role supported by Swedish actresses Hilda Borgström Wanda Rothgardt and Inga Landgre. Erland Josephson and Stig Olin play to Birger Malmsten in the film. In 1949 Molander directed Love Will Conquer (Karleken Segrar), scripted by G?sta Stevens, with Ingrid Thulin. Egil Molmsen in 1948 would direct Ingrid Thulin and Gerda Landgren in the film Kann dej som hemma. The very beautiful Else Fisher was introduced to Swedish movie goers in 1948 in the film Stanna en stund, directed by Alex. Jute and photographed by Sten Dahlgren. In 1952, she appeared with Yvonne Lombard in the film Bom the Flyer (Flyg-Bom).
Gunnar Hogland directed the film Vi bygger framtiden with Ingrid Thulin in 1949. Both Eva Dahlbeck and Max von Sydow that year appeared in the film Only a Mother (Bara en mor), adapted from a novel by Lo-Johansson, photographed by Martin Bodin and directed by Alf Sj?berg. The film was the first film in which actresses Sonja Rolen and Margaretha Krook were to appear. Mimi Pollack also appears in the film. Bara en mor is listed by the Ingmar Bergman Foundation as being among one of the most liked by the director. The Woman Who Disappeared (Kvinnan som f’rsvann), directed by Anders Angström and photographed by Bertil Palmgren in 1949, starred Inger Juel and Cecile Ossbahr. Arthur Spjuth that year wrote and directed his first film in 1949, Bohus Bataljon, codirected by S?lve Cederstrand, it starring Greta Garbo biographer Fritiof Billquist. After having directed his royal majesty Gustaf V. Kung av Sverige in the film Directorn ar upptagen (1945), Per Gunvall directed the film Pippi Longstocking (Pippi Langstrump, 1949) with Viveca Serlachius and Benkt-Ake Benktsson. Lars-Eric Kjellin in 1949 directed the films The Lord from the Lane (Greven fran granden) with Mimi Nelson and Annalisa Ericson and Father Bom (Pappa Bom). In a film scripted by Rune Lindström, Ake Ohberg that year brought Sonja Wigert, Inger Juel and Margareta Fahlen to the screen in Destination Rio (Vi flyger pa Rio). Schamyl Bauman in 1949 brought Harriet Andersson to the screen in the film Playing Truant (Skolka Skolan). Maj-Britt Nilsson in 1949 appeared in the film Spring at Sjosala (Sjosalavar), produced by Rune Waldekranz and directed by Per Gunvall. Ivar Johansson in 1949 wrote and directed the film Lasky-Lasse goes to Delbo (Lang-Lasse i Delsbo), photographed by Sven Nykvist and starring Anna Lindal and Ulla Andreasson. The Swedish Horseman (Svenske Ryttaren) was directed by Gustaf Edgren in 1949 and starred Elisabeth Söström, Gunnel Brostrom, Gull Natorp and Barbro Nordin.
Ingrid Thulin-Swedish FilmIn 1950, Ivar Johansson directed When Lilacs Bloom (Nar Syrenerna blomma), photographed by Sven Nykvist and Land of Rye (Ragen Rike), photographed by Sven Nykvist and starring Nine-Christine Jonsson and Linnea Hillberg. Hasse Ekman that year directed Ingrid Thulin, Irma Christenson, Gertrud Fridh and Eva Dahlbeck in the film Jack of Hearts (Hjarter knekt), the first film in which Barbro Larsson would appear. The Newer, a novel by Albert Olsson published in 1947, was quickly adapted for Arne Mattsson, who directed Ingrid Thulin , Ruth Kasdan, Sigge Furst and Irma Christenson in the film When Love Arrived in the Village (Nar karleken till byn, 1950). Mattsson also that year directed Cruise Romance (Kyssen pa kryssen), starring Annalisa Ericson, Gunnar Bjornstrand and Ake Gronberg as well as Saucepans-journey (Kastrull-resan), starring Eva Dahlbeck and Sigge Furst. Scripted by G?sta Stevens and photographed by Ake Dahlquist, Gustaf Molander directed Eva Dahlbeck, along with Elsa Carlsson, Olaf Winnerstrand, Viveca Serlachius and Karl-Arne Homsten in the film Fastmo uthyres, 1950, the first film in which actress Birgitta Olzon was to appear. Ake Ohberg that year directed Ulla Sallert and Mimi Nelson in the film Young and in Love (Ung och kar). Kungs Film in 1950 produced Gosta Werner’s film Across the Yard and Two Flights Up (Tva trappor over garden), photographed by Sten Dahlgren and starring Gertrud Fridh, Irma Christensen, Ilse-Nore Tromm, Sif Ruud, Lisskulla Jobs, Ann Bornholm, Ingrid Lothigius, and Else Fischer. Schamyl Bauman in 1950 paired Edvin Adolphson and Sickan Carlsson in Frokens forsta barn, a film that would include an early screen appearance of Swedish film actress Harriet Andersson. Froken forsta barn was photographed by Hilding Bladh. During 1950, both Birger Malmsten and Haide Göransson appeared on the same movie set together with the film Regementets ros, directed by Begnt Jarrel and photographed by Olof Ekman. Also in the film are Margareta Fahlen and Siv Thulin. Swedish film actress and acquaintance of Greta Garbo Mimi Pollack directed her first film, Mama gor Revolution, photographed by Elner Akesson and scripted by Elsa Appelquist, in 1950.
Peter Cowie looks to the film Summer Interlude (Sommarlek, 1950), starring Maj-Britt Nilsson, Alf Kjellin and Annalisa Ericsson, as being the film where Ingmar Bergman began to develop unique uses of film technique and a more extensive use of the close-up to dramaticly develop character. In his autobiography Images, Ingmar Bergman writes, ”A touch of tenderness is achieved through Maj-Britt Nillsson’s performance. The camera catches her with an affection that is easy to comprehend.” In his autobiography Images, Bergman gives an account of his writing the script, ”I wrote several versions, but nothing fell into place. Then Herbert Grevenius came to me aid. He chiseled away all the superfluous episodes and pulled out an original story.” To continue the tradition established by Sjöström and Stiller of using the enviornment to convey theme in Swedish film, a tradition that would show Bergman’s technique in Cries and Whispers as being that of a director that had filmed after Gustav Molander, Bergman discusses the lighting used in the film and his filming at twilight, ”The landscape had a special mixture of a tempered countryside and wilderness, which played and important part in the different time schemes.” Immediately after filming Summer Interlude, Ingmar Bergman went into the production of the film This Can’t Happen Here (Sant Hander Inte Har). He writes, ”I was not at all adverse to making a detective story or a thiller; that was not the reason for my discomfort. Neither was Signe Hasso the reason. She had been hailed as an international star who Svensk Filmindustri, with incredible naivete, had hoped would make the film a raging success.” Again Herbert Grevenius was to be the scriptwriter with Bergman, his adapting for the screen a novel written by Peter Valentin. The cinematographer to the film was Gunnar Fischer, its editor Lennart Wallen. Alf Kjellin also appears on screen in the film as does actress Yngve Nordwall.
In 1951 Arne Mattson directed the film Rolling Sea/Carrying Sea (Barande Hav) with Eva Dahlbeck and Ulla Jacobsson. Eva Dahlbeck that year also appeared in the film Daisywheel Helena (Skona Helena), cowritten by Rune Walderkranz with its director, Gustaf Edgren and photographed by Hilding Bladh. That year Gosta Bernhard directed Kenne Fant in the film Poker, which also starred Ingrid Backlin and Margetha Löwler.
Swedish poet Folke Isaksson in 1951 published the volume Vinterresa, his following it in 1954 with the volume Det grona aret. 1953 saw the publication of Isaksson’s novel Irrarder.
In 1952 G?sta Werner directed Ingrid Thulin in the film Mote med livet. The Long Search (Memory of Love, Han glomde henne aldrig, 1952), a film that had featured the daughter of Victor Sj?str?m, Guje Lagerwall, and Anita Bj?rk, had also starred Sven Lindberg, who co-directed the film with Robert B. Spafford. Lars Eric Kjellgren was again to be the director of Mimi Nelson, his teaming her with Annalisa Ericson that year for the 1952 film Say it with Flowers (Sag det med blommar), scripted by Gösta Stevens.
Noregian film director Arne Skouen in 1952 wrote and directed the film Forced Landing (Nordlanding), photographed byPer G. Jonson and starring Randi Kolstad.
Secrets of Women (Waiting Women, Kvinnors vantan, 1952) is of an episodic narrative structure, it being a film where ”its narrative method gives us more variety than depth” (Birgitta Steene); each of the female characters narrates a retrospective account from their marriage, Bergman dividing the film not only between scenes but between characters as well. In the film are Anita Bj?rk, Maj-Britt Nilsson and Eva Dahlbeck. Anita Bj?rk and Jarl Kulle are filmed in close-up, Maj-Britt Nilsson and Birger Malmsten are shown on location in exterior shots and Eva Dahlbeck and Gunnar Bj?rnstrand are filmed by Gunnar Fischer in an elevator sequence during a dialouge scene involving mirrors which are ”used to suggest the inanity of the repartee” (Peter Cowie) as the conversation is drawn out by the couple being filmed in a continuous take. Ingmar Bergman had based the scene on one of his own experiences. He writes, ”There was something fateful about the meeting between the three of us: me, Eva and Gunnar. Both of them were talented and creative actors. They felt immediately that although I had perhaps not yet written a spectacular text, the collaboration offered them great oppourtunities. Swedish Film-Eva Dahlbeck
Bergman writes that it was because he was so pleased with the acting performances of Eva Dahlbeck and Gunnar Bj?nstrand in Secrets of Women that he wrote A Lesson in Love (En lektion i karlek, 1953) for them in order to develop the theme of the elevator sequence more elaborately. Birgitta Steene also compares the two films thematicly, their both being concerned with the acceptance on the part of the female character of a husband within an erotic relationship. As in Secrets of Women, Bergman uses retrospective narrative to present the characters and storyline. Photographed by Martin Bodin, A Lesson in Love quickly introduces itself as a comedy with a voice over and a musical box. Gunnar Bjornstrand and Eva Dahlbeck meet each other on a train after a series of dialougue scenes that cutback and forth establishing the films interwoven narrative structure. The camera then holds Bjornstrand and Harriet Andersson in conversation during a series of scenes in which she falls alseep in his arms. Bergman uses the train compartment to keep Eva Dahlbeck and Bjornstrand in close up and in tight close up. The prolonged dialouge scenes that are contrasted with the complicated narrative framework then shift to the retrospective of Eva Dahlbeck as she is framed by a camera that pans only minimally. The storyline, after reintroducing Harriet Andersson into the film, concludes in Denmark.
In 1953 Erik Hampe Faustman directed Inga Tiblad, Annalisa Ericsson, Birgitta Valberg, Eva Dahlbeck and Ulla Sjoblom in the film House of Women (Kvinnohuset). Notably, Eva Dahlbeck also that year starred in Alf Sjöberg’s film Barabbas, with Yvonne Lombard and Jarl Kulle. Rolf Husberg that year wrote and directed the film All the World’s Delights (All jordens frojd), starring Ulla Jacobsson, Kenne Fant and Birger Malmsten. Gustaf Molander in 1953 directed Unmarried (Glasberget) starring Hasse Ekman and Gunn Wallgren.
Hidden in the Fog (I dimma dold) was directed in 1953 by Lars-Eric Kjellgren and starred Eva Henning, Sture Lagerwall and Sonja Wigert, its cinematographer, Gunnar Fischer. That year Lars Eric Kjellgren also directed Max von Sydow, Anne-Marie Gyllenspatz and Ingerid Vardund, Lissi Alandh in the film No Mans Woman (Ingen mans kvinna). The film also marks the first Swedish screen on screen appearance of Norwegian actress Ella Hval. Hasse Ekman in 1953 directed the film We three are making our debut (Vi tre debutera), starring Gunnar Bjornstrand and Maj-Britt Nilsson, the cinematographer to the film Gunnar Fischer. That year Eva Dahlbeck appeared in The Shadow (Skuggan), the first film directed by Kenne Fant. It was photographed by Kalle Bergholm and also starred George Rydeberg and Pia Arnell. That year Fant also directed Edvin Adolphson and Pia Skoglund in Wingbeats in the Night (Ving slag i nattan). Bror min och jag, directed in 1953 by Ragnar Frisk and starring Anna-Lise Baude included Birgitta Andersson in a small role, it being the first film in which she was to appear. Eva Dahlbeck appeared under the direction of Ake Ohberg in the 1953 film The Chief from Goingehovingden (Goingehovingden). Martin S?derhjelm in 1953 directed Fritiof Billquist in the film Dance with my Doll (Dansa min docka). Rolf Husberg in 1953 directed Swedish silent film actress Hilda Borgstrom in the film Each Heart has its Own Story (Vart hjarta har sin saga). Egil Holmsen that year directed Margit Carlqvist in the film Marianne. Carlqvist also during 1953 appeared in the film Path to Klockrike (Vagen till Klockrike), directed by Gunnar Skoglund and starring also starring Edvin Adolphson. The first two films directed by Stig Olin were released in 1953, both starring Alice Babs and Sigge Furst and both written by the director, I dur och skur, photographed by Hilding Bladh and also starring Yvonne Lombard, and Resan till dej, co-written by Hasse Ekman and photographed by Göran Strindberg, Anders Henrikson and Ulla Sjöblom having also starred in the film. Storm over Tjuro (1953), starring Gunnel Brostr?m and Margaretha Krook and Salka Valka (1954), starring Gunnel Brostr?m and Folke Sundquist, both directed by Arne Mattsson, were photographed by Sven Nykvist. Mattson in 1954 also directed the film Enchanted Journey (Fortroll ad vandrig).
During an interview, Ingmar Bergman told Stig Bjorkman, ”Bibi has one or two lines in Smiles of a Summer Night, but she had already been in lone of my Bris films. Even at the time she had been in a lot of films: The Ghost at Glimmingehus and Dumbom. Bibi had started when she was sixteen.” The Ghost at Glimmingehus (En Natt pa Glimmingehus, 1954), directed by Torgny Wickman, had also starred Begnt Logart, Gunnilla Akerrehn, Ingeborg Nyberg and Britta Ulfberg.
The Bris Soap commericial, Reklamfilm Bris, in which Bibi Andersson had appeared was one of the last of nine entitled The Princess and the Swineherd (Prinsessan och svinaherden, 1953). The commercials were filmed over a three year period and photographed by cinematographer Gunnar Fischer. In Images, Ingmar Bergman writes, ”Later, during the time when movie production was shut down, I put together a series of commercials for the soap Bris (Breeze), and I had alot of fun challenging stereotypes of the commercial genre by playing around with the genre itself and making miniature films in the spirit of George Melies.” The Magic Show (Trollenet), starring Lennart Lindberg had appeared in 1952. Lindberg also that year appeared in the commercial The Film Shooting, with Torsten Lilliecrona. Commercials filmed in 1951 had included Bris Soap (Tvalen Bris) with Barbro Larsson and King Gustavus III (Gustavianskt). Barbro Larsson in 1952 appeared in The Inventor (Uppfinnaren) and The Rebus (Rebusen). The Film Shooting (Tredimensionellt), with actress Marion Sundh, was filmed in 1953.
Kenne Fant in 1954 directed the film Young Summer (Ung sommar), photographed by Kalle Bergholm and starring Lennart Lindberg, Birgit Lundin and Edvin Adolphson and based on a novel by Per Olof Ekstr?m. Kenne Fant again directed Birgit Lundin in 1956 in the film I takt med tiden, written by Volodja Semitjov and photographed by Olof Ekman. That year Fant also directed The Taming of Love (Sa tukas karleken), starring Karin Ekelund and Jane Friedmann. The film was produced by Nordisk Tonefilm. Eric Hampe Faustman in 1954 directed Gull Natorp, Ulla Sjoblöm, and Marta Dorff in God the Father and the Gypsy (Gud Fader och tattaren) photographed by Swedish cinematographer Curt Jonsson and Annalisa Ericson in the film The Lunchbreak Cafe (Cafe Lunchrasten). Stig Olin in 1954 directed Hasse Ekman in his film The Yellow Squadron (Gula Divisionen) starring Meg Westergren. Dance on Roses (Dans pa rosor, 1954), starring Sickan Carlsson, was written and directed by Schamyl Bauman. Victory in the Dark (Seger i morker), directed by Gösta Folke appeared in Swedish theaters in 1954. Torgny Wickman in 1954 directed Astrid Bodin and Berit Frodi in their first appearances on screen in the film Girl Without a Name (Flicka Utan Namn), photographed by Rune Ericson and written by Volodja Semitjov. The film was produced by Sandrew-Bauman and also stars Karin Miller, Alf Kjellin and Els a-Ebben Thornblad. Swedish silent film director Alf Sjöberg in 1954 wrote and directed the film Karin Mansdotter, in which Ulla Jacobsson, Birgitta Valberg and Ulla Sjöblom appeared.
In addition to filming Smiles of a Summer Night (Sommarnattens Leende), in 1955 Ingmar Bergman directed Journey into Autmun (Dreams, Kvinnodrom). Peter Cowie writes that it was Anders Hendrikson that was to appear in the film, the role being written for him untill forfieted and taken by Gunnar Bjöstrand. Scripted by Bergman and photographed by Hilding Bladh, the film stars Eva Dahlbeck, Harriet Andersson, Inga Landre, Niama Wifstrand, Git Gay and Renee Björling.
Alf Sj?berg in 1955 wrote and directed the film Wild Birds (Vildfaglar), starring Maj-Britt Nilsson, the cinematographer to the film Martin Bodin. The film is based on the novel Nisse Bortom written by Bengt Anderberg. Anders Henrikson in 1955 directed the film Married (Giftas) in which he starred with Gösta Cederlund, Anita Björk and Mai Zetterling. The film was produced by AB Europafilm. Stig Olin that year directed Ingrid Thulin in the film Hoppsan, Borje Larsson that year directing her in the film The Dance Hall (Danssalongen) with Sonja Wigert. Stig Olin in 1955 also wrote and directed the film Mord, lilla van, photographed by Hilding Bladh and starring Inga Landre and G?sta Cederlund. The first film in which Gio Petre was to appear ,(The Merry Boys of the Fleet (Flottans muntergokar), was in theaters during 1955. Directed by Ragnar Frisk, the film starred Marianne Löfgren, Rut Holm and Rene Bjorling. Ragnar Frisk that year also directed Annalisa Ericson in the film Merry Go Round in the Mountains (Karusellen i fjallen). Gustaf Molander in 1955 directed the film The Unicorn (Enhorningen), starring Sture Lagerwall, Inga Tiblad, Edvin Adolphson and Briger Malmsten, the film’s cinematographer Martin Bodin. Schamyl Bauman that year directed Darling at Sea (Alskling pa Vagen), scripted by Solve Cederstrand and Sjuth and starring Sickan Carlsson and Sigge Furst. The Last Form (Sista ringen), directed in 1955 by Gunnar Skoglund, brought George Rydeberg, Marianne Aminoff and Marta Arbin to the screen along with Margareta Henning in what would be her first film appearance. Swedish film director Torgny Wickman in 1955 directed Catherine Berg in her first film, Blocked Tracks (Blockerat spar) with Alf Kjellin and Torsten Ulliecrona. The following year, Bengt Blomgren directed and starred with Gunnel Lindblom in the film Gunpowder and Love (Krut och Karlek, 1956). He followed it with the film Linje sex, starring Margit Carlqvist and Ake Gronberg. Georege Arlin directed his first film that year Bla himmel starring Ingeborg Nyberg, Barbro Larsson, Mim Ekelund and Monica Nielsen.
Scandinavian FilmFinnish film actress Tuija Halonen was bginning to become known to film audiences in 1955 with the film Near to Sin (Lahella Syntia, Nara Synden) directed by Hannu Leminen. The previos year she had starred in the film Enchanted Night (Taikayo), directed by Willaim Markus and based on the 1946 novel by Martti Larni. She would later, in 1959, appear on the screen in Fate Makes its Move (Kohotalo Tekee Siiron) directed by Armand Lohikoski.
Hasse Ekman in 1956 directed the film Private Entrance (Engang ingang), photographed by Gunnar Fischer and starring Maj Britt Nilsson and Bibi Andersson. Rolf Husberg that year directed Anita Bj?k and Brita Oberg in the film Moon over Hellesta (Moln Over Hellesta) Its script is based by the novel Moln over Hellesta, published by Swedish author Margit Soderholm a year earlier. The previous year Soderholm had published the novel Jul pa Hellesta. Photgraphed by Goran Strindberg and starring Maj-Britt Nilsson and Karlheinz Bohm, A Girl for the Summer (Sommarflickan, 1956) was brought to the screen by the directors Thomas Engel and Hakan Bergstrom. Kenne Fant in 1956 directed Eva Dahlbeck in the film Tarps Elin, the film also starring Ulf Palme, Marta Arbin and Fritiof Billquist. Mimi Pollack, who had studied at the Royal Dramatic Academy with Greta Garbo. in 1956 directed, The Right to Love (Rattaen att alska), starring Max von Sydow. Gunnar Hellström that year brought Harriet Andersson to the screen in Children of the Night (Nattbarn), starring Birgitta Olzon. Scriptwriter Barbro Boman that year directed the film It’s Never Too Late (Det ar aldrig for sent). Gunnar Skoglund in 1956 brought Kristina Adolphson and Catrin Westerlund to the screen in the film Blanande hav. Arne Mattsson that year directed the film Girl in a Dressing Gown (Girl in Tails/Flickan i frack), produced by Rune Waldkranz and scripted by Herbert Grevenius. The films stars Maj-Britt Nilsson, Sigge Furst, Kerstin Duner and Elsa Prawitz. Mattsson also that year directed the film A Little Nest (Litet bo).
Bergman writes that the screenplay to The Last Couple Out (Sista Paret Ut, 1956) ”had been floating around Svensk Filmindustrustri for a long time in synopsis form.” He continues by writing, ”Working rapidly, Sj?berg and I started churning out the screenplay for The Last Couple Out, from which Sj?berg later wrote his own version.” The earlier title for the script written by Ingmar bergman had been For the Children’s Sake. The film, photographed by Martin Bodin and edited by Oscar Rosander, is written around a character portrayed by Bjorn Bjelvenstam, his becoming involved romantically with characters played by Harriet Andersson, who was closing out an affair with Bergman, and Bibi Andersson, who was begining an affair with the director. Added to the plotline is the dialouge between Bjelvenstam and the character portrayed by Eva Dahlbeck. Cowie quotes Alf Sjöberg as having said,”It was an old script and marked an unhappy stage in our collaboration.” Last Couple out was the first film in which Mona Andersson was to appear.

Eva DahlbeckHaving starred in a number of films, including Playing on the Rainbow (Lek pa regnbagen, Lars-Eric Kjellin 1957), a film written by Vigot Sjöman and photographed by Gunnar Fischer in which he co-starred with Mai Zetterling, Alf Kjellin wrote and directed A Girl in the Rain (Flickan i regnet) with Gunnel Lindblom, Pia Skoglund, Bibi Andersson and Marianne Bengtsson in the first film in which she was to appear as well as directing Twilight Meetings (Encounters at Dusk/Moten i skymningen (1957), based on a novel by Pers Anders Folgelstrom, with Eva Dahlbeck , Birger Malmsten and Ake Gronberg, the scriptgirl to the film having had been being Katherina (Katinka) Farago and the cinematographer again having had been being Gunnar Fischer. Arne Mattson that year directed Spring of Life (Livets Var) and No Tommorow. The following year he directed There Came Two Men, The Lady in Black (Damen i svart), with Anita Bj?rk, Lena Granhagen and Annalisa Ericson, a film shot mostly in interior scenes with the use of low-key lighting, and Mannequin in Red (Mannekang i rott), with Rune Carlsten and Anita Bj?rk. Hasse Ekman in 1957 directed Eva Dahlbeck, Bibi Andersson and Gunnar Bj?nstrand in A Summer Place is Wanted (Summer Cottage, Sommarnoje sokes). He also that year directed With a Halo Askew (Med gloria pa sned) with Sickan Carlsson and Sture Lagerwall. Arne Ragneborn in 1957 directed Ingrid Thulin in the film Aldrig i livet. Stig Olin that year directed Guest at One’s Own Home (Gast i eget hus) with Monica Nielsen and Anita Bj?rk. Lars-Magnus Lindgren in 1957 directed the film A Dreamer’s Walk (En drommares vandrig, photographed by Sven Nykvist and starring Margit Carlqvist, Jarl Kulle, Keve Helm, Inga Landre, Linnea Hillberg and Brita Oberg. Also appearing in the film is Eric Hell. Hans Lagerkvist in 1957 directed the film The Rusk (Skorpan), photographed by Martin Bodin and starring Marianne Bengtsson, Anna-Lisa Baude and Fritiof Billquist. Marianne Bengtsson that year also appeared in the film Night Light (Nattens ljus), directed by Lars-Eric Kjellgren and photographed by Ake Dahlqvist. Gunnar Bjornstrand and Birger Malmsten star with Bengtsson. Written and directed by Goran Gentele, Varmlanningarna (1957), was photographed by Karl-Erik Alberts. Not only does the film star Busk Margit Jonsson, Marta Dorff and Marta Arbin, but Greta Garbo biographer Fritiof Billquist also appears in the film.
Swedish film director Ingmar Bergman and the present author feel very much the same about the film The Brink of Life (Nara livet 1957). In his autobiography, Images, Bergman writes, ”I sat watching the same film years later in the darkness, alone and influenced by no one….When the movie ended, I sat there, suprised at myself and a little annoyed- I suddenly liked the old film.” While explaining Bergman introduces the film as a story written around three characters, these being portrayed in the film by Eva Dahlbeck, Bibi Andersson and Ingrid Thulin. He describes it as ”warm, honest and intelligently done, with first-class performances.” He also gives a nod to Max Willen, the film’s cameraman, who during the filming was ”an adequate craftsman without any sensitivity”. Peter Cowie writes, ”Brink of Life is the first of those Bergman movies in which dialog and characterization take precedence over scenery and locations.”
Norwegian Film director Arne Skouen in returned to directing in 1957 with the film Nine Lives (We Die Alone/ Ni liv) produced by by Fotorama and photographed by Ragnar Sorensen. The film stars Lydia Opoien, Henny Moan and Grete Norda. He continued the following year by directing A God and His Servants (Herren og hans tjener, 1958) based on the 1955 play by Axel Kielland. The film, photographed by Finn Bergan, stars Urda Arneberg, Anna-Lise Tangstad and Wenche Foss.
In 1958 G?sta Stevens and Hasse Ekman co-scripted two films that were directed by Ekman, The Great Amateur (Den Store amatoren), with Marianne Bengtsson, and Jazz Boy (Jazzgossen), in which he starred with Maj-Britt Nilsson and Alice Babs. Goran Gentele in 1958 brought Lena S?derblom to the screen in the film Miss April (Froken April), in which she starred with Gunnar Bj?rnstrand. Froken April was the film that would introduce Swedish actress Gunilla Ponten. In 1958, Jan Molander directed Harriet Andersson in Woman in Leopardskin (Kvinna i leopard), which, adapted from his own screenplay, was his debutorial film as a director. The film also stars Ulf Palme, Renee Bjorling, Siv Ericks, Mona Malm. Stig Olin that year directed Andersson in Commander of the Navy (Flottans overman). Stig Olin that year brought the film You are My Adventure (Du ar mitt aventyr) to the screen. Greta Garbo biographer Fritiof Billquist appeared on screen with Astrid Bodin, Ann-Marie Gyllenspetz, Git Gay and Ulla-Bella Fridh in the film Travel to Sun and Spring (Far Till Sol och Var), directed by Lars-Eric Kjellgren and photographed by Martin Bodin
In 1959 Hasse Ekman directed the films Good Heavens (Goodnes Gracious/Himmel och pannaka) and Miss Chic (Froken Chic), both starring Sickan Carlsson and co-scripted by G?sta Stevens. Both films were photographed by Martin Bodin. Alf Kjellin that year returned Alice Babs to the screen in the film Swinging at the Castle (Det svanger pa slottet, which also starred Yvonne Lombard and Lena Granhagen. Goran Gentele in 1959 brought Jar Kulle and Lena Söderblom to the screen in the film The Theif in the Bedroom (Sangkammartjuven.
In 1959 Arne Mattsson directed Rider in Blue (Ryttare i blatt), the first film in which the actress Solveig Ternstr?m was to appear, and Lend me your Wife (Far jag lana din fru?), with Annalisa Ericson. In 1960, Mattsson directed When Darkness Falls (Na morkret faller) with Nils Asther and Birgitta Pettersson and Summer and Sinners (Sommar och sydare) with Gio Petre, Yvge Gamlin and Elsa Prawitz. In 1961, he followed with The Summer Night is Sweet (Lovely is the Summer Night, Ljuvlig ar sommarnatten), photographed by Tony Forsberg and starring Marta Albin, Elsa Prawitz, Tekla Sjoblom and Christina Carlwind in her first appearance on the screen.
Kenne Fant in 1959 directed the film The Love Game (Den kara leken) with Bibi Andersson, Sven Lindberg and Lars Ekborg, his following it in 1960 with The Wedding Day (Brollopsdagen), in which Bibi Andersson stars with Elsa Carlsson. Both films were photographed by Swedish cinematographer Max Wilen. Alf Sj?berg in 1960 directed Ingrid Thulin and Mona Andersson in the film The Judge (Domaren), the film’s cinematographer Sven Nykvist. That year Rolf Husberg directed the films Av hjartans lust and Tarningen ar karstad starring Anita Bj?rk and Gio Petre. Hasse Ekman in 1960 wrote and directed both The Decimals of Love (Karleckens decimaler), based on a novel by G?sta Gustaf-Jansons and starring Eva Henning and Eva Dahlbeck and On the Beach in the Park (Pa en bank i park), in which he starred with Lena Granhagen and Sigge Furst. Helena Brodin appeared in her first film in 1960, Three Wishes (Three Desire/Tre Onskningar). Directed by Goran Gentele, the film also starred Eva Dahlbeck and Mimi Nelson.
After having directed the film The Pleasuregarden (Lustgarden, 1961), a film scripted by Ingmar Bergman and Erland Josephson, photographed by Gunnar Fischer and starring the ”polished performances” (Robert Emmet Long) of Bibi Andersson, Gunnar Bj?nstrand, G?sta Cederlund and Sickan Carlsson, Alf Kjellin directed Harriet Andersson in his film Siska-en kvinnobild, in 1962. The film was photographed by Gunnar Fischer. Ragnar Frisk directed Anita Lindblom in We Fix Everything (Vi fixar allt) in 1961, in Tre dar i buren in 1963 and again in Three Days A Vagabond (Tre dar pa luffen) in 1964. Vi fixar allt was the first film in which the actress Anna Sundqvist was to appear. Also in the film is Swedish actress Sangrid Nerf. Hasse Ekman in 1961 directed the film The Job/Braces (Stoten) with Gunnar Hellstrom, Tor Isedal, Maude Adelson and Ann-Mari Wiman. That year the first film directed by Lars Magnus Lindgren, There are no Angles (Anglar, finns dom) was to star Christine Schollin and Margit Carlqvist.
During 1962, Sandrew Film produced the film One Zeroe Too Many (En Nolla For Mycket) directed by Bjorje Nyberg and photographed by Hilding Bladh. The film stars Birgitta Andersson, Toivo Pawlo, Mona Malm and Lill-Babs.
 
 
 
 

 

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Swedish Film

      An e-mailed letter to the present author ends, ”Many people in Sweden says that Greta Garbo is a main collector’s item but the Garbo posters didn’t fetch much interest.” It was sent by a collector of movie posters who had been to the movie poster auction in Gothenburg, Sweden, which was held as part of the Gothenburg Film Festival, February, 2006. Included in the auction were two posters from the film A Two Faced Woman.
As there was speculation as to what script could possibly bring Greta Garbo back to the silver screen, as Eva Henning and Viveca Lindfors were being introduced to Swedish audiences and as Ingmar Bergman was laying the beginnings of a body of film that would secure him as the director that would circulate the films of the Swedish Film Institute into an international viewing, Ingrid Bergman was in the United States making the 1946 film Notorius with Alfred Hitchcock, her earlier having appearred in the film Dr. Jeckyll and Mr. Hyde (1941). It was also at this time that there would be a remake of Anna Karenina, starring Vivien Leigh and directed by Julien Duuvier.
From a script co-written by Birgit Tengroth based on her short stories, Three Strange Loves ( Thirst, Torst 1949), directed for Svensk Filmindustri by Ingmar Bergman and photographed by Gunnar Fischer, had starred Mimi Nelson, Eva Henning and Hasse Ekman. Birgit Tengroth also appears in the film. Hugo Bolander filmed as an assistant director with Ingmar Bergman and Oscar Rosander edited the film. Bergman writes that the film is in fact about a journey and that his aim was that the ”complicated camera movements” be unnoticed by the audience; ”you can see the seems if you look closely” (Ingmar Bergman). Bergman, during an interview with Swedish author Jonas Sima, had remarked, ”I like Eva very much. She was an extraordinarily fine actress.” Before Eva Henning appeared in The Banquet (Banketten, 1948), she had also appeared in Elvira Madigan (1943) and The Royal Rabble ( Kungliga patrasket, 1945) which also starred its director, Hasse Ekman. Ekman directed her with Alf Kjellin in 1945 in the film Wish on the Moon (Vandring med mannen). In 1947 she appeared with Sonja Wigert in his film One Swallow Doesn’t Make A Summer (En fluga gor ingen sommar). Hasse Ekman had begun directing with With You In My Arms (Med dej i mina armar, 1940), the first film in which Elsie Allbin was to appear, it being followed by First Division (Forsta Divisionen, 1941) in which he and Lars Hanson starred. In 1942 he directed Ingrid Tiblad in Langor i dunklet and Marguerite Viby in Luck Arrives (Lyckan kommar). While comparing Swedish actresses of the thirties, Tytti Soila writes that Royal Dramatic Theater (Kungliga Dramatiska Teatern) ”actors were easy to identify thanks to their inflated and stylized acting and above all-after the introduction of sound film- by their unnatural manner of delivering lines. Actors like Lars Hanson and Inga Tiblad never succeded in liberating themselves from this formal style of acting” Apparently this was not entirely to the dismay of Swedish audiences, as their films were still popular in Sweden.
In 1943 Hasse Ekman continued with the films Unexpected Meeting, Change of Trains (Om byte ar tage), with Sonja Wigert and The Sixth Shot (Sjatte Skottet), written by G?sta Stevens and starring Edvin Adolphson, Karin Ekelund and Gunn Wallgren. In 1944 he directed Lars Hanson again in His Excellency (Excellensen), with Gunnar Sjoberg and Erik Hampe Faustman as well as having directed A Day Will Dawn (En Dag Skall gry) with Edvin Adolphson for Sandrews Productions.
Swedish Film In 1946 the director filmed Nightly Encounter (Meeting in the Night/Mote i nattan) starring Eva Dahlbeck and When The Door Was Closed (When The Door Was Locked, Medan portan var stangd), all of which were films in which he had starred. Writing about the premiere of A Ship Bound for India (Skepp till Indialand, 1947), a film which had been based on a play by Martin Soderhjelm that had starred Gertrude Fridh, Ingmar Bergman describes a meeting with Hasse Ekman with ”an unbelievably gorgeous Eva Henning at his side.” The film was produced by Terrafilm.
Girl with Hyacinths (Flicka och hycintar, 1950) had again brought Eva Henning to the screen, it starring Anders Ek and directed by Ekman. The film is listed as being one of the favorites screenings of director Ingmar Bergman. Bordwell and Thompson, in a Bloglines RSS entitled Observations on film art and Film Art, blog that there are ten retrospective narrative scene-sequences in Girl with Hyacinths, but more notably relate that these retrospective narratives interlock. During the previous year Eva Henning had appeared with Hasse Ekman in his film The Girl From the Gallery/The Girl in the Third Row (Flickan fran tredje raden), which had also starred Maj-Britt Nilsson. Ekman directed the film for Terra Film.
She then made The White Cat (1951) (Den vita katten) with Gunnar Bjornstrand and Alf Kjellin and Gabrielle (1954), photographed by Gunnar Fischer and also starring Karin Molander, both of which films were also directed by Ekman. In 1948, Ekman directed Each Goes His Own way (Var sin vag) with Eva Dahlbeck and Gosta Cederlund and Little Marta Returns (Lilla Marta kommer till baka), produced by Terrafilm.
Viveca Lindfors began acting on the screen with the director Ivar Johanson in the films The Spinning Family (Snurriga Familjens, 1940), scripted by Torsten Lundquist and starring Annalisa Ericson, Imagine If I Marry the Vicar (Tank, Om Jag Gifter Mig Med Prasten), a Swedish Karleksdrama based on a novel by Ester Linden and starring Gudron Brost, Arne Mattsson the assistant director to the Swedish Karleksdrama, (1941) and The Yellow Ward / The Yellow Clinic (Gula Kliniken, 1942), with Anna Lindahl, Barbro Kollberg, Karin Kavli, Gull Natorp, Ruth Stevens and Mona Martenson. She then appeared with Birgitta Valberg in In Paradise (I Paradis, 1941) directed by Per Lindgren and with Gudron Brost in The Sins of Anna Lans (Anna Lans, 1943) a Swedish Karleksdrama directed by Rune Carlsten and photographed by Ernst Westerberg, it having been the first film in which actress Toivo Pawlo was to appear. Black Roses (Svarta Rosor, 1945), directed by Rune Carlsten, a remake of the earlier film, would star Viveca Lindfors with Eva Dahlbeck and Ulf Palme. G?sta Cederlund directed Lindfors in The Brothers’ Woman (Brodernas kvinna, 1943), based on a novel by Ebba Richert and starring Britta Holmgren. The film was produced by Film AB Lux.
Eric Petschler, who had directed Greta Garbo in Sweden before she had travelled to the United States, appeared as an actor with Lindfors in the film Jag ar eld och luft (1944) directed by Anders Henrikson, the assistant director to the film G?sta Folke.
One of the first films that Arne Mattsson was to direct, Marie in the Windmill (Maria pa Kvarngarden, 1945) had starred Viveca Lindfors, it also featuring the daughter of Victor Sj?str?m, Guje Lagerwall, as well as Edvin Adolphson, Irma Christensen, Linnea Hillberg and Rune Carlsten. In 1946, Lindfors starred with the director Hasse Ekman in his film (In the Waiting Room of Death(Interlude/I dodens vantrum) which had been based on a novel by Sven Stolpes, the assistant director to the film Bengt Ekerot. Like Greta Garbo she later came to the United States to make film. Among those in which Lindfors had appearred were The Adventures of Don Juan (1948) and The Raiders (1952). Swedish Film actress Mai Zetterling would decide upon England. Before later returning to Sweden, she appearred in several British films, the first of which, Frieda (1947), her performance having had been being under the direction of Basil Dearden. In 1948, Mai Zetterling was to appear in Terence Fischer’s Potrait from Life, her then having appeared in the films The Bad Lord Byron (Macdonald), The Lost People (Knowles) and The Romantic Age (Greville).
Having read the script to the adaptation and having agreed to make the film,in 1949 Garbo made a thirteen minute screentest in black and white for La Duchesse de Langeais shot by William Daniels and James Wong Howe.
”I thanked him by leaving for Svensk Filmindustri, where Gustaf Molander had meaninwhile made a film out my original screenplay, Woman without a Face.” Filmed under Victor Sj?str?m, the cinematographer to Kvinna utan ansikte (1947), scripted by Ingmar Bergman, was Ake Dahlqvist. The film stars Alf Kjellin, Gunn Wallgren, Anita Bj?rk and Marianne Lofgren.
Photographed by Goran Strindberg and directed by Alf Sj?berg, Miss Julie (Froken Julie, 1950) begin with a series of exterior shots, often cutting in close up shots with long and full shots, almost as though to supplant the establishing shot with the use of an entire scene before it introducing two initially minor characters in a kitchen by showing the title character, potrayed by Anita Bj?rk, evesdropping on them. He uses a horse drawn carriage to connect the interior dialouge of the one-act play to the open countryside, using long shots from different camera positions. As the film continues, Sj?berg uses statues and a lake during exterior shots of a garden to connect the characters to the landscape , which can nearly seem pastoral as the film begins to depend more and more upon the dramatic acting of Bj?rk. The film then shifts to a legnthy interior dialouge scene as the two characters decide whether to leave the country and begin again together. The film concludes by Miss Julie being last seen in an exterior reestablishing shot. While writing about The Road to Heaven (Himlaspelet), Cowie attributes S?berg as being a director that ”could reconcile the alfresco scope of the cinema” with the compressed acting and dialouge that comprises the playwright’s articulation of the visual on the stage. Sj?berg had in fact returned to the theater after having directed Anders Henrikson The Strongest (Den Starkaste, 1929). Author Peter Cowie goes so far as to write, ”But during the thirties Sjöberg was ostracized by the film industry. So keen was the appetite for frivolous domestic comedies that a director of Sjöberg’s intent incongruous at the studious.” Examining Sj?berg’s adaptation of the Strindberg play, Tytti Soila views the subject positioning of the Anita Bj?rk character as the use of the theatrical within film to structure the look of the character, ”The object of her desire is her possibility of knowing and the consequences of knowledge: more than sexual satisfaction and love, the drama is about acquiring sexual experience and knowledge about sex.” Ostensibly, the feminine gaze as a desire to acquire knowledge about sexual relations is also thematic in Vilgot Sj?man two films I am Curious Yellow and I am Curious Blue. The film Home from Babylon (Hem fran Babylon, 1941), starring Gerd Hagman, marks the beginning of Alf Sjoberg’s return from the theater to to film . Alf Sj?berg directed Maj-Britt Nilsson in her first film, Journey Out (Resanbort, 1945), photographed by Martin Bodin and starring Gunn Wallgern and Hjordis Petterson. In 1946 Sjöberg paired Mai Zetterling and Alf Kjellin in Iris and the Lieutenant (Iris och lojnantshjarta). Froken Julie was produced by noted author and film historian Rune Walderkranz for A B Sandrew.
After filming Sonja Wigert in And All These Women (…och alla dessa kvinnor, 1944) Arne Mattsson continued directing in 1945 with the comedy Sussie, written by S?lve Cederstrand and starring Gunnar Bj?nstrand and Marguerite Viby and the films Incorrigible (1946) and Bad Eggs (Rottagg, 1946), scripted by Sven Zetterström and photographed by Sten Dahlgren and starring Marianne Lofgren, Ingrid Backlin, Harriet Philpson and Elsie Allbin. In 1946 Arne Mattsson also directed Gunnar Bjornstrand in the film Peggy pa Vift, starring Gunnel Brostrom and Marguerite Viby, and, in 1947, followed with the film Father Wanted (Pappa sokes), starring Gunnar Bj?nstrand and Sickan Carlsson.
1946 was to mark the film Det eviga leendet being on the theater marquees in Sweden, it being the film that would introduce Eva Lombard. The film was written and directed by Lars Eric Leidholm and starred Barbro Hogstadius. Eva Dahlbeck that year appearred in Rolf Husberg’s film Love Goes Up and Down/Love and Downhill Skiing (Karlek och stortlopp), starring Agneta Lagerfelt, Signe Furst, Hjordis Petterson and Karin Miller in her first on screen appearance. Agneta Lagerfelt would also that year appear in Rolf Husberg’s film Evening at Djurgarden (Djurgardsikvallar), phototographed by Julius Jaenzon and starring Ingrid Bjork, Naima Wifstrand and Emy Hagman as well as the film Kvinnor i vantrum, directed by Gösta Folke, written by Solve Cederstand and photographed by Eric Blomberg. The film stars Britta Holmberg, Anna Lindahl and Solveig Lagström. Eic Blomberg that year was also the cinematographer for the film Wedding at Sun Island (Brollopet Pa Solo), directed by Ivar Johansson and starring Rut Holm, Emy Hagman and Sibrit Molin in what was to be her first appearance on the screen. Nils Poppe in 1946 would direct The Balloon (Ballongen), with Marianne Aminoff, Inga Landgre, Marianne Lögren, Ingrid Borthen and Marianne Gyllenhammar. Schamyl Bauman that year directed the film Saltwater Spray and Tough Old Boys (Saltstank och Krutgubbar) photographed by Sven Nykvist and starring Irma Christensen, Gull Natorp and Inrid Ostergren.
Finnish film director Teuvo Tulio directed actress Regina Linnanheimo in two films during 1946, The Cross of Love (Rakkauden risti/Karleckens kors) and Restless Blood (Levoton veri/Orolist blod). He followed in 1947 by directing her in the film In the Grips of Passion (Intohimon vallasa/I ledelsens famn). Finnish actress Helena Karan that year appeared in the film Ruined Youth (Tuhotto nuoruus), directed by Hanu Leminen.
Ake Ohberg in 1948 directed Where the Wind Blows (Dit Vindarna Bar), the first film in which Ingrid Thulin was to appear. In the film are also George Fant and Eva Strom. Elof Ahrle that year directed Livet pa Forsbyholm, photographed by Julius Jaenzon. That year Gosta Werner directed Maj-Britt Nilsson in The Street (Gatans). Arne Mattsson that year directed the film Dangerous Spring (Farlig var). Erik Hampe Faustman in 1948 directed Eva Dahlbeck in the film Lars Hard and George Fant with Illona Weiselmann in the film Foreign Port (Fremmande hamn/Strange Harbor). Anders Henrikson in 1948 directed Eva Dahlbeck in the film The Girl From the Mountain Village (Flickan fran fjallbyn).
Swedish FilmPhotographed by Gunnar Fischer and edited by Oscar Rosander, Port of Call (Hamnstad, 1948) starred Nine Christine Jonsson as the central character in a script written by Olle Lansberg titled The Gold and the Walls, the film ”shot on location in Gotheburg, with interiors at the SF studios in Stockholm” (Peter Cowie) where the camerawork of Bergman begins showing not only the enviornment in which the characters find the situations that emerge around them, but also what may isolate the character while involved with the development of plotline events as he or she develops as character. Also in the film are Bergit Hall, Mimi Nelson, Birgitta Valberg and Britta Billsten. Jorn Donner remarks upon Port of Call as being noteworthy for its ”unsentimental tone” in regard to the narrative and its exposition of storyline, and for there being a uniformity to the style in regard to the technique used in the film. In Images, Ingmar Bergman writes that he tried to include as many exteriors as he could in order to create something new with Swedish cinema that would include the use of realism. Jorn Donner in fact attributes the film with having brought a realism to its character portrayal and goes so far as to invoke the camerawork of Stiller and Sjostrom in that Bergman uses the enviornment to bring the development of its characters to the depth that ends the film.
In 1949 Arne Mattsson directed Victor Sj?str?m in The Railroad Men (Rallare), based on a novel by Olle Lansberg. It was photographed by Martin Bodin who had worked with Arne Mattsson on the film A Guest Came (Det kom en gast, 1947) with Sture Lagerwall and Anita Bj?rk. Mattsson again directed Sj?str?m in Hard klang (1952) with Margit Carlqvist and Edvin Adolphson and Men in Darkness (Mannen i Morker, 1955). In 1949 he also directed Woman in White (Kvinna i vitt) with Mimi Nelson and Eva Dahlbeck.
In her autobiography, All Those Tommorows, Mai Zetterling writes, ”Music in the Dark was to be my first and last picture with Ingmar Bergman directing. It was in 1947…Music in the Dark was basically a sentimental love story about a man who goes blind through an accident and a young girl who falls in love with him. What Ingmar was interested in was the man’s loss of identity, his lonliness and his despair.” She continues candidly and with all kindness to describe her relationship with Bergman as an actress at that time as not having brought enough to her performance and that she looked to Alf Sj?berg for inspiration. Musik i Morker (Night is My Future) was photographed by Göran Strindberg and stars Hilda Borgstr?m, Gunnar Bj?rnstrand and Birger Malmsten. Jorn Donner writes, ”Compared with Port of Call, Night is My Future seems to be an almost completely commercial film. In his autobiography Images, Bergman writes that he had in fact directed the film with the thought of it being enjoyable to watch
Theaters in 1947 were to see the script writing of Rune Walderkranz, cowriting with Ragnar Arvedson on a film that Arvedson co-directed with Schamyl Bauman, Maj pa Malo, photographed by Sven Nykvist and starring Inga Landre. Rune Waldekranz that year produced the film Life in the Finn Woods (Livet i Flunskogarna), directed by Ivar Johansson and phtographed by Eric Blomberg. Starring are Sigbrit Molin, Barbro Ribbing, Mirjami Kuosmanen and Nine-Christine Jonsson. It was also the year that Song of Stockholm (Sangen om Stockholm) , would be shown on the theater screens of Sweden. Directed by Elof Ahrle, the film stars Hilda Borström, Alice Babs, Karin Swenson and Marianne Gyllenhammar. Audiences would also be reintroduced to actress Eva Dahlbeck, who appeared in the film The Key and the Ring (Nyckeln och Ringen), under the direction of Anders Henrikson. The film was photographed by Harald Berglund and scripted by Swedish silent film screenwriter Bertil Malberg. Also starring in the film were Aino Taube, Ulla Sallert, Hild Bögström and Maj Töblad. Henrikson would again direct Eva Dahlbeck in 1948 in the film The Girl from the Mountain Village (Flickan fran fjallbyn), photographed by Bertil Palmgren and written by Sven Gustafson. The film also stars Kerstin Holmber and Sif Ruud. Inger Juel would appear in her first film in 1947, The Most Beautiful in the World (Det Vackraste Pa Jorden), also directed by Anders Henrikson and starring Marianne Lofgren. Gosta Bernhard directed his first two films in 1947, 91:an Karlssons permis and En sommarweekend. Sture Lagerwall went from actor to director with the film Here We Are Coming (Har kommer vi) in 1947, scripted by Torsten Lundquist, Greta Garbo biographer Fritiof Billquist and Marianne Aminoff having appeared in the film. The film was co-directed with actor John Zacharias, as was the film I Love You, Karlsson (Jag Elskar Dig, Karlsson) in which he starred with Marguerite Viby, Viveca Serlachius, Solveig Lagstrom and Linnea Hillberg. The cinematographer to the film was Rudolf Frederiksen. Lagerwall appeared as an actor in Gunnar Skoglund’s film How to Love (Konsten att alska, 1947) with Wanda Rothgardt and in Bengt Palm’s film The Night Watchman’s Wife (Nattvaktens hustru, 1948) with Britta Holmberg, a film which was produced by AB Centrumfilm. Gosta Folke that year directed Maj-Britt Nilsson in the film Maria. Stig Jarrel in 1947 directed and appeared in the films Evil Eyes and The Sixth Commandment (Sjatte Budet), which also starred Ingrid Backlin and Gosta Cederlund. Lars-Eric Kjellin directed his first film that year, Don’t Give Up (Tappan inte sugen), starring Ulla Sallert and Annalisa Erickson and photographed by Gunnar Fischer. Eva Dahlbeck that year appeared in the film Two Women (Tva kvinnor), directed by Arnold Sj?strand. Eric Hampe Faustman in 1947 directed the Viking-medieval adventure film Harald the Stalwart (Harald Handfaste), with George Ryderberg and George Fant. Anita Bj?rk that year appeared in the film No Way Back (Ingen vag till backa), written and directed by Edvin Adolphson. Ragnar Arvedson that year directed Edvin Adolphson and Karin Ekelund in the film Dinner for Two (Supe for tva), with Mimi Pollack, it having been the first film in which actress Ann-Mari Wiman was to appear. Swedish actress Monica Nielsen appeared in her first film in 1947, Kvarterets Olycksfagel directed by P. G. Holmgren with Ella Lindblom and Lillemor Appelgren.
Swedish Film-EvaThe following year, Gustaf Molander continued directing with the film Life Starts Now (Nuborjar livet, 1948), photographed by Ake Dahlqvist, edited by Oscar Rosnader and written by Rune Lindstrom and starring Wanda Rothgardt and Mai Zetterling. The Trumpet Player and the Lord (Trumpetar och Var Henne), a film written by Ingmar Bergman was became an opportunity for he and Gustaf Molander to script the film Eva (1948), directed by Molander and photographed by Ake Dahlqvist, with Eva Stiberg in the title role supported by Swedish actresses Hilda Borgström Wanda Rothgardt and Inga Landgre. Erland Josephson and Stig Olin play to Birger Malmsten in the film. In 1949 Molander directed Love Will Conquer (Karleken Segrar), scripted by G?sta Stevens, with Ingrid Thulin. Egil Molmsen in 1948 would direct Ingrid Thulin and Gerda Landgren in the film Kann dej som hemma. The very beautiful Else Fisher was introduced to Swedish movie goers in 1948 in the film Stanna en stund, directed by Alex. Jute and photographed by Sten Dahlgren. In 1952, she appeared with Yvonne Lombard in the film Bom the Flyer (Flyg-Bom).
Gunnar Hogland directed the film Vi bygger framtiden with Ingrid Thulin in 1949. Both Eva Dahlbeck and Max von Sydow that year appeared in the film Only a Mother (Bara en mor), adapted from a novel by Lo-Johansson, photographed by Martin Bodin and directed by Alf Sj?berg. The film was the first film in which actresses Sonja Rolen and Margaretha Krook were to appear. Mimi Pollack also appears in the film. Bara en mor is listed by the Ingmar Bergman Foundation as being among one of the most liked by the director. The Woman Who Disappeared (Kvinnan som f’rsvann), directed by Anders Angström and photographed by Bertil Palmgren in 1949, starred Inger Juel and Cecile Ossbahr. Arthur Spjuth that year wrote and directed his first film in 1949, Bohus Bataljon, codirected by S?lve Cederstrand, it starring Greta Garbo biographer Fritiof Billquist. After having directed his royal majesty Gustaf V. Kung av Sverige in the film Directorn ar upptagen (1945), Per Gunvall directed the film Pippi Longstocking (Pippi Langstrump, 1949) with Viveca Serlachius and Benkt-Ake Benktsson. Lars-Eric Kjellin in 1949 directed the films The Lord from the Lane (Greven fran granden) with Mimi Nelson and Annalisa Ericson and Father Bom (Pappa Bom). In a film scripted by Rune Lindström, Ake Ohberg that year brought Sonja Wigert, Inger Juel and Margareta Fahlen to the screen in Destination Rio (Vi flyger pa Rio). Schamyl Bauman in 1949 brought Harriet Andersson to the screen in the film Playing Truant (Skolka Skolan). Maj-Britt Nilsson in 1949 appeared in the film Spring at Sjosala (Sjosalavar), produced by Rune Waldekranz and directed by Per Gunvall. Ivar Johansson in 1949 wrote and directed the film Lasky-Lasse goes to Delbo (Lang-Lasse i Delsbo), photographed by Sven Nykvist and starring Anna Lindal and Ulla Andreasson. The Swedish Horseman (Svenske Ryttaren) was directed by Gustaf Edgren in 1949 and starred Elisabeth Söström, Gunnel Brostrom, Gull Natorp and Barbro Nordin.
Ingrid Thulin-Swedish FilmIn 1950, Ivar Johansson directed When Lilacs Bloom (Nar Syrenerna blomma), photographed by Sven Nykvist and Land of Rye (Ragen Rike), photographed by Sven Nykvist and starring Nine-Christine Jonsson and Linnea Hillberg. Hasse Ekman that year directed Ingrid Thulin, Irma Christenson, Gertrud Fridh and Eva Dahlbeck in the film Jack of Hearts (Hjarter knekt), the first film in which Barbro Larsson would appear. The Newer, a novel by Albert Olsson published in 1947, was quickly adapted for Arne Mattsson, who directed Ingrid Thulin , Ruth Kasdan, Sigge Furst and Irma Christenson in the film When Love Arrived in the Village (Nar karleken till byn, 1950). Mattsson also that year directed Cruise Romance (Kyssen pa kryssen), starring Annalisa Ericson, Gunnar Bjornstrand and Ake Gronberg as well as Saucepans-journey (Kastrull-resan), starring Eva Dahlbeck and Sigge Furst. Scripted by G?sta Stevens and photographed by Ake Dahlquist, Gustaf Molander directed Eva Dahlbeck, along with Elsa Carlsson, Olaf Winnerstrand, Viveca Serlachius and Karl-Arne Homsten in the film Fastmo uthyres, 1950, the first film in which actress Birgitta Olzon was to appear. Ake Ohberg that year directed Ulla Sallert and Mimi Nelson in the film Young and in Love (Ung och kar). Kungs Film in 1950 produced Gosta Werner’s film Across the Yard and Two Flights Up (Tva trappor over garden), photographed by Sten Dahlgren and starring Gertrud Fridh, Irma Christensen, Ilse-Nore Tromm, Sif Ruud, Lisskulla Jobs, Ann Bornholm, Ingrid Lothigius, and Else Fischer. Schamyl Bauman in 1950 paired Edvin Adolphson and Sickan Carlsson in Frokens forsta barn, a film that would include an early screen appearance of Swedish film actress Harriet Andersson. Froken forsta barn was photographed by Hilding Bladh. During 1950, both Birger Malmsten and Haide Göransson appeared on the same movie set together with the film Regementets ros, directed by Begnt Jarrel and photographed by Olof Ekman. Also in the film are Margareta Fahlen and Siv Thulin. Swedish film actress and acquaintance of Greta Garbo Mimi Pollack directed her first film, Mama gor Revolution, photographed by Elner Akesson and scripted by Elsa Appelquist, in 1950.
Peter Cowie looks to the film Summer Interlude (Sommarlek, 1950), starring Maj-Britt Nilsson, Alf Kjellin and Annalisa Ericsson, as being the film where Ingmar Bergman began to develop unique uses of film technique and a more extensive use of the close-up to dramaticly develop character. In his autobiography Images, Ingmar Bergman writes, ”A touch of tenderness is achieved through Maj-Britt Nillsson’s performance. The camera catches her with an affection that is easy to comprehend.” In his autobiography Images, Bergman gives an account of his writing the script, ”I wrote several versions, but nothing fell into place. Then Herbert Grevenius came to me aid. He chiseled away all the superfluous episodes and pulled out an original story.” To continue the tradition established by Sjöström and Stiller of using the enviornment to convey theme in Swedish film, a tradition that would show Bergman’s technique in Cries and Whispers as being that of a director that had filmed after Gustav Molander, Bergman discusses the lighting used in the film and his filming at twilight, ”The landscape had a special mixture of a tempered countryside and wilderness, which played and important part in the different time schemes.” Immediately after filming Summer Interlude, Ingmar Bergman went into the production of the film This Can’t Happen Here (Sant Hander Inte Har). He writes, ”I was not at all adverse to making a detective story or a thiller; that was not the reason for my discomfort. Neither was Signe Hasso the reason. She had been hailed as an international star who Svensk Filmindustri, with incredible naivete, had hoped would make the film a raging success.” Again Herbert Grevenius was to be the scriptwriter with Bergman, his adapting for the screen a novel written by Peter Valentin. The cinematographer to the film was Gunnar Fischer, its editor Lennart Wallen. Alf Kjellin also appears on screen in the film as does actress Yngve Nordwall.
In 1951 Arne Mattson directed the film Rolling Sea/Carrying Sea (Barande Hav) with Eva Dahlbeck and Ulla Jacobsson. Eva Dahlbeck that year also appeared in the film Daisywheel Helena (Skona Helena), cowritten by Rune Walderkranz with its director, Gustaf Edgren and photographed by Hilding Bladh. That year Gosta Bernhard directed Kenne Fant in the film Poker, which also starred Ingrid Backlin and Margetha Löwler.
Swedish poet Folke Isaksson in 1951 published the volume Vinterresa, his following it in 1954 with the volume Det grona aret. 1953 saw the publication of Isaksson’s novel Irrarder.
In 1952 G?sta Werner directed Ingrid Thulin in the film Mote med livet. The Long Search (Memory of Love, Han glomde henne aldrig, 1952), a film that had featured the daughter of Victor Sj?str?m, Guje Lagerwall, and Anita Bj?rk, had also starred Sven Lindberg, who co-directed the film with Robert B. Spafford. Lars Eric Kjellgren was again to be the director of Mimi Nelson, his teaming her with Annalisa Ericson that year for the 1952 film Say it with Flowers (Sag det med blommar), scripted by Gösta Stevens.
Noregian film director Arne Skouen in 1952 wrote and directed the film Forced Landing (Nordlanding), photographed byPer G. Jonson and starring Randi Kolstad.
Secrets of Women (Waiting Women, Kvinnors vantan, 1952) is of an episodic narrative structure, it being a film where ”its narrative method gives us more variety than depth” (Birgitta Steene); each of the female characters narrates a retrospective account from their marriage, Bergman dividing the film not only between scenes but between characters as well. In the film are Anita Bj?rk, Maj-Britt Nilsson and Eva Dahlbeck. Anita Bj?rk and Jarl Kulle are filmed in close-up, Maj-Britt Nilsson and Birger Malmsten are shown on location in exterior shots and Eva Dahlbeck and Gunnar Bj?rnstrand are filmed by Gunnar Fischer in an elevator sequence during a dialouge scene involving mirrors which are ”used to suggest the inanity of the repartee” (Peter Cowie) as the conversation is drawn out by the couple being filmed in a continuous take. Ingmar Bergman had based the scene on one of his own experiences. He writes, ”There was something fateful about the meeting between the three of us: me, Eva and Gunnar. Both of them were talented and creative actors. They felt immediately that although I had perhaps not yet written a spectacular text, the collaboration offered them great oppourtunities. Swedish Film-Eva Dahlbeck
Bergman writes that it was because he was so pleased with the acting performances of Eva Dahlbeck and Gunnar Bj?nstrand in Secrets of Women that he wrote A Lesson in Love (En lektion i karlek, 1953) for them in order to develop the theme of the elevator sequence more elaborately. Birgitta Steene also compares the two films thematicly, their both being concerned with the acceptance on the part of the female character of a husband within an erotic relationship. As in Secrets of Women, Bergman uses retrospective narrative to present the characters and storyline. Photographed by Martin Bodin, A Lesson in Love quickly introduces itself as a comedy with a voice over and a musical box. Gunnar Bjornstrand and Eva Dahlbeck meet each other on a train after a series of dialougue scenes that cutback and forth establishing the films interwoven narrative structure. The camera then holds Bjornstrand and Harriet Andersson in conversation during a series of scenes in which she falls alseep in his arms. Bergman uses the train compartment to keep Eva Dahlbeck and Bjornstrand in close up and in tight close up. The prolonged dialouge scenes that are contrasted with the complicated narrative framework then shift to the retrospective of Eva Dahlbeck as she is framed by a camera that pans only minimally. The storyline, after reintroducing Harriet Andersson into the film, concludes in Denmark.
In 1953 Erik Hampe Faustman directed Inga Tiblad, Annalisa Ericsson, Birgitta Valberg, Eva Dahlbeck and Ulla Sjoblom in the film House of Women (Kvinnohuset). Notably, Eva Dahlbeck also that year starred in Alf Sjöberg’s film Barabbas, with Yvonne Lombard and Jarl Kulle. Rolf Husberg that year wrote and directed the film All the World’s Delights (All jordens frojd), starring Ulla Jacobsson, Kenne Fant and Birger Malmsten. Gustaf Molander in 1953 directed Unmarried (Glasberget) starring Hasse Ekman and Gunn Wallgren.
Hidden in the Fog (I dimma dold) was directed in 1953 by Lars-Eric Kjellgren and starred Eva Henning, Sture Lagerwall and Sonja Wigert, its cinematographer, Gunnar Fischer. That year Lars Eric Kjellgren also directed Max von Sydow, Anne-Marie Gyllenspatz and Ingerid Vardund, Lissi Alandh in the film No Mans Woman (Ingen mans kvinna). The film also marks the first Swedish screen on screen appearance of Norwegian actress Ella Hval. Hasse Ekman in 1953 directed the film We three are making our debut (Vi tre debutera), starring Gunnar Bjornstrand and Maj-Britt Nilsson, the cinematographer to the film Gunnar Fischer. That year Eva Dahlbeck appeared in The Shadow (Skuggan), the first film directed by Kenne Fant. It was photographed by Kalle Bergholm and also starred George Rydeberg and Pia Arnell. That year Fant also directed Edvin Adolphson and Pia Skoglund in Wingbeats in the Night (Ving slag i nattan). Bror min och jag, directed in 1953 by Ragnar Frisk and starring Anna-Lise Baude included Birgitta Andersson in a small role, it being the first film in which she was to appear. Eva Dahlbeck appeared under the direction of Ake Ohberg in the 1953 film The Chief from Goingehovingden (Goingehovingden). Martin S?derhjelm in 1953 directed Fritiof Billquist in the film Dance with my Doll (Dansa min docka). Rolf Husberg in 1953 directed Swedish silent film actress Hilda Borgstrom in the film Each Heart has its Own Story (Vart hjarta har sin saga). Egil Holmsen that year directed Margit Carlqvist in the film Marianne. Carlqvist also during 1953 appeared in the film Path to Klockrike (Vagen till Klockrike), directed by Gunnar Skoglund and starring also starring Edvin Adolphson. The first two films directed by Stig Olin were released in 1953, both starring Alice Babs and Sigge Furst and both written by the director, I dur och skur, photographed by Hilding Bladh and also starring Yvonne Lombard, and Resan till dej, co-written by Hasse Ekman and photographed by Göran Strindberg, Anders Henrikson and Ulla Sjöblom having also starred in the film. Storm over Tjuro (1953), starring Gunnel Brostr?m and Margaretha Krook and Salka Valka (1954), starring Gunnel Brostr?m and Folke Sundquist, both directed by Arne Mattsson, were photographed by Sven Nykvist. Mattson in 1954 also directed the film Enchanted Journey (Fortroll ad vandrig).
During an interview, Ingmar Bergman told Stig Bjorkman, ”Bibi has one or two lines in Smiles of a Summer Night, but she had already been in lone of my Bris films. Even at the time she had been in a lot of films: The Ghost at Glimmingehus and Dumbom. Bibi had started when she was sixteen.” The Ghost at Glimmingehus (En Natt pa Glimmingehus, 1954), directed by Torgny Wickman, had also starred Begnt Logart, Gunnilla Akerrehn, Ingeborg Nyberg and Britta Ulfberg.
The Bris Soap commericial, Reklamfilm Bris, in which Bibi Andersson had appeared was one of the last of nine entitled The Princess and the Swineherd (Prinsessan och svinaherden, 1953). The commercials were filmed over a three year period and photographed by cinematographer Gunnar Fischer. In Images, Ingmar Bergman writes, ”Later, during the time when movie production was shut down, I put together a series of commercials for the soap Bris (Breeze), and I had alot of fun challenging stereotypes of the commercial genre by playing around with the genre itself and making miniature films in the spirit of George Melies.” The Magic Show (Trollenet), starring Lennart Lindberg had appeared in 1952. Lindberg also that year appeared in the commercial The Film Shooting, with Torsten Lilliecrona. Commercials filmed in 1951 had included Bris Soap (Tvalen Bris) with Barbro Larsson and King Gustavus III (Gustavianskt). Barbro Larsson in 1952 appeared in The Inventor (Uppfinnaren) and The Rebus (Rebusen). The Film Shooting (Tredimensionellt), with actress Marion Sundh, was filmed in 1953.
Kenne Fant in 1954 directed the film Young Summer (Ung sommar), photographed by Kalle Bergholm and starring Lennart Lindberg, Birgit Lundin and Edvin Adolphson and based on a novel by Per Olof Ekstr?m. Kenne Fant again directed Birgit Lundin in 1956 in the film I takt med tiden, written by Volodja Semitjov and photographed by Olof Ekman. That year Fant also directed The Taming of Love (Sa tukas karleken), starring Karin Ekelund and Jane Friedmann. The film was produced by Nordisk Tonefilm. Eric Hampe Faustman in 1954 directed Gull Natorp, Ulla Sjoblöm, and Marta Dorff in God the Father and the Gypsy (Gud Fader och tattaren) photographed by Swedish cinematographer Curt Jonsson and Annalisa Ericson in the film The Lunchbreak Cafe (Cafe Lunchrasten). Stig Olin in 1954 directed Hasse Ekman in his film The Yellow Squadron (Gula Divisionen) starring Meg Westergren. Dance on Roses (Dans pa rosor, 1954), starring Sickan Carlsson, was written and directed by Schamyl Bauman. Victory in the Dark (Seger i morker), directed by Gösta Folke appeared in Swedish theaters in 1954. Torgny Wickman in 1954 directed Astrid Bodin and Berit Frodi in their first appearances on screen in the film Girl Without a Name (Flicka Utan Namn), photographed by Rune Ericson and written by Volodja Semitjov. The film was produced by Sandrew-Bauman and also stars Karin Miller, Alf Kjellin and Els a-Ebben Thornblad. Swedish silent film director Alf Sjöberg in 1954 wrote and directed the film Karin Mansdotter, in which Ulla Jacobsson, Birgitta Valberg and Ulla Sjöblom appeared.
In addition to filming Smiles of a Summer Night (Sommarnattens Leende), in 1955 Ingmar Bergman directed Journey into Autmun (Dreams, Kvinnodrom). Peter Cowie writes that it was Anders Hendrikson that was to appear in the film, the role being written for him untill forfieted and taken by Gunnar Bjöstrand. Scripted by Bergman and photographed by Hilding Bladh, the film stars Eva Dahlbeck, Harriet Andersson, Inga Landre, Niama Wifstrand, Git Gay and Renee Björling.
Alf Sj?berg in 1955 wrote and directed the film Wild Birds (Vildfaglar), starring Maj-Britt Nilsson, the cinematographer to the film Martin Bodin. The film is based on the novel Nisse Bortom written by Bengt Anderberg. Anders Henrikson in 1955 directed the film Married (Giftas) in which he starred with Gösta Cederlund, Anita Björk and Mai Zetterling. The film was produced by AB Europafilm. Stig Olin that year directed Ingrid Thulin in the film Hoppsan, Borje Larsson that year directing her in the film The Dance Hall (Danssalongen) with Sonja Wigert. Stig Olin in 1955 also wrote and directed the film Mord, lilla van, photographed by Hilding Bladh and starring Inga Landre and G?sta Cederlund. The first film in which Gio Petre was to appear ,(The Merry Boys of the Fleet (Flottans muntergokar), was in theaters during 1955. Directed by Ragnar Frisk, the film starred Marianne Löfgren, Rut Holm and Rene Bjorling. Ragnar Frisk that year also directed Annalisa Ericson in the film Merry Go Round in the Mountains (Karusellen i fjallen). Gustaf Molander in 1955 directed the film The Unicorn (Enhorningen), starring Sture Lagerwall, Inga Tiblad, Edvin Adolphson and Briger Malmsten, the film’s cinematographer Martin Bodin. Schamyl Bauman that year directed Darling at Sea (Alskling pa Vagen), scripted by Solve Cederstrand and Sjuth and starring Sickan Carlsson and Sigge Furst. The Last Form (Sista ringen), directed in 1955 by Gunnar Skoglund, brought George Rydeberg, Marianne Aminoff and Marta Arbin to the screen along with Margareta Henning in what would be her first film appearance. Swedish film director Torgny Wickman in 1955 directed Catherine Berg in her first film, Blocked Tracks (Blockerat spar) with Alf Kjellin and Torsten Ulliecrona. The following year, Bengt Blomgren directed and starred with Gunnel Lindblom in the film Gunpowder and Love (Krut och Karlek, 1956). He followed it with the film Linje sex, starring Margit Carlqvist and Ake Gronberg. Georege Arlin directed his first film that year Bla himmel starring Ingeborg Nyberg, Barbro Larsson, Mim Ekelund and Monica Nielsen.
Scandinavian FilmFinnish film actress Tuija Halonen was bginning to become known to film audiences in 1955 with the film Near to Sin (Lahella Syntia, Nara Synden) directed by Hannu Leminen. The previos year she had starred in the film Enchanted Night (Taikayo), directed by Willaim Markus and based on the 1946 novel by Martti Larni. She would later, in 1959, appear on the screen in Fate Makes its Move (Kohotalo Tekee Siiron) directed by Armand Lohikoski.
Hasse Ekman in 1956 directed the film Private Entrance (Engang ingang), photographed by Gunnar Fischer and starring Maj Britt Nilsson and Bibi Andersson. Rolf Husberg that year directed Anita Bj?k and Brita Oberg in the film Moon over Hellesta (Moln Over Hellesta) Its script is based by the novel Moln over Hellesta, published by Swedish author Margit Soderholm a year earlier. The previous year Soderholm had published the novel Jul pa Hellesta. Photgraphed by Goran Strindberg and starring Maj-Britt Nilsson and Karlheinz Bohm, A Girl for the Summer (Sommarflickan, 1956) was brought to the screen by the directors Thomas Engel and Hakan Bergstrom. Kenne Fant in 1956 directed Eva Dahlbeck in the film Tarps Elin, the film also starring Ulf Palme, Marta Arbin and Fritiof Billquist. Mimi Pollack, who had studied at the Royal Dramatic Academy with Greta Garbo. in 1956 directed, The Right to Love (Rattaen att alska), starring Max von Sydow. Gunnar Hellström that year brought Harriet Andersson to the screen in Children of the Night (Nattbarn), starring Birgitta Olzon. Scriptwriter Barbro Boman that year directed the film It’s Never Too Late (Det ar aldrig for sent). Gunnar Skoglund in 1956 brought Kristina Adolphson and Catrin Westerlund to the screen in the film Blanande hav. Arne Mattsson that year directed the film Girl in a Dressing Gown (Girl in Tails/Flickan i frack), produced by Rune Waldkranz and scripted by Herbert Grevenius. The films stars Maj-Britt Nilsson, Sigge Furst, Kerstin Duner and Elsa Prawitz. Mattsson also that year directed the film A Little Nest (Litet bo).
Bergman writes that the screenplay to The Last Couple Out (Sista Paret Ut, 1956) ”had been floating around Svensk Filmindustrustri for a long time in synopsis form.” He continues by writing, ”Working rapidly, Sj?berg and I started churning out the screenplay for The Last Couple Out, from which Sj?berg later wrote his own version.” The earlier title for the script written by Ingmar bergman had been For the Children’s Sake. The film, photographed by Martin Bodin and edited by Oscar Rosander, is written around a character portrayed by Bjorn Bjelvenstam, his becoming involved romantically with characters played by Harriet Andersson, who was closing out an affair with Bergman, and Bibi Andersson, who was begining an affair with the director. Added to the plotline is the dialouge between Bjelvenstam and the character portrayed by Eva Dahlbeck. Cowie quotes Alf Sjöberg as having said,”It was an old script and marked an unhappy stage in our collaboration.” Last Couple out was the first film in which Mona Andersson was to appear.

Eva DahlbeckHaving starred in a number of films, including Playing on the Rainbow (Lek pa regnbagen, Lars-Eric Kjellin 1957), a film written by Vigot Sjöman and photographed by Gunnar Fischer in which he co-starred with Mai Zetterling, Alf Kjellin wrote and directed A Girl in the Rain (Flickan i regnet) with Gunnel Lindblom, Pia Skoglund, Bibi Andersson and Marianne Bengtsson in the first film in which she was to appear as well as directing Twilight Meetings (Encounters at Dusk/Moten i skymningen (1957), based on a novel by Pers Anders Folgelstrom, with Eva Dahlbeck , Birger Malmsten and Ake Gronberg, the scriptgirl to the film having had been being Katherina (Katinka) Farago and the cinematographer again having had been being Gunnar Fischer. Arne Mattson that year directed Spring of Life (Livets Var) and No Tommorow. The following year he directed There Came Two Men, The Lady in Black (Damen i svart), with Anita Bj?rk, Lena Granhagen and Annalisa Ericson, a film shot mostly in interior scenes with the use of low-key lighting, and Mannequin in Red (Mannekang i rott), with Rune Carlsten and Anita Bj?rk. Hasse Ekman in 1957 directed Eva Dahlbeck, Bibi Andersson and Gunnar Bj?nstrand in A Summer Place is Wanted (Summer Cottage, Sommarnoje sokes). He also that year directed With a Halo Askew (Med gloria pa sned) with Sickan Carlsson and Sture Lagerwall. Arne Ragneborn in 1957 directed Ingrid Thulin in the film Aldrig i livet. Stig Olin that year directed Guest at One’s Own Home (Gast i eget hus) with Monica Nielsen and Anita Bj?rk. Lars-Magnus Lindgren in 1957 directed the film A Dreamer’s Walk (En drommares vandrig, photographed by Sven Nykvist and starring Margit Carlqvist, Jarl Kulle, Keve Helm, Inga Landre, Linnea Hillberg and Brita Oberg. Also appearing in the film is Eric Hell. Hans Lagerkvist in 1957 directed the film The Rusk (Skorpan), photographed by Martin Bodin and starring Marianne Bengtsson, Anna-Lisa Baude and Fritiof Billquist. Marianne Bengtsson that year also appeared in the film Night Light (Nattens ljus), directed by Lars-Eric Kjellgren and photographed by Ake Dahlqvist. Gunnar Bjornstrand and Birger Malmsten star with Bengtsson. Written and directed by Goran Gentele, Varmlanningarna (1957), was photographed by Karl-Erik Alberts. Not only does the film star Busk Margit Jonsson, Marta Dorff and Marta Arbin, but Greta Garbo biographer Fritiof Billquist also appears in the film.
Swedish film director Ingmar Bergman and the present author feel very much the same about the film The Brink of Life (Nara livet 1957). In his autobiography, Images, Bergman writes, ”I sat watching the same film years later in the darkness, alone and influenced by no one….When the movie ended, I sat there, suprised at myself and a little annoyed- I suddenly liked the old film.” While explaining Bergman introduces the film as a story written around three characters, these being portrayed in the film by Eva Dahlbeck, Bibi Andersson and Ingrid Thulin. He describes it as ”warm, honest and intelligently done, with first-class performances.” He also gives a nod to Max Willen, the film’s cameraman, who during the filming was ”an adequate craftsman without any sensitivity”. Peter Cowie writes, ”Brink of Life is the first of those Bergman movies in which dialog and characterization take precedence over scenery and locations.”
Norwegian Film director Arne Skouen in returned to directing in 1957 with the film Nine Lives (We Die Alone/ Ni liv) produced by by Fotorama and photographed by Ragnar Sorensen. The film stars Lydia Opoien, Henny Moan and Grete Norda. He continued the following year by directing A God and His Servants (Herren og hans tjener, 1958) based on the 1955 play by Axel Kielland. The film, photographed by Finn Bergan, stars Urda Arneberg, Anna-Lise Tangstad and Wenche Foss.
In 1958 G?sta Stevens and Hasse Ekman co-scripted two films that were directed by Ekman, The Great Amateur (Den Store amatoren), with Marianne Bengtsson, and Jazz Boy (Jazzgossen), in which he starred with Maj-Britt Nilsson and Alice Babs. Goran Gentele in 1958 brought Lena S?derblom to the screen in the film Miss April (Froken April), in which she starred with Gunnar Bj?rnstrand. Froken April was the film that would introduce Swedish actress Gunilla Ponten. In 1958, Jan Molander directed Harriet Andersson in Woman in Leopardskin (Kvinna i leopard), which, adapted from his own screenplay, was his debutorial film as a director. The film also stars Ulf Palme, Renee Bjorling, Siv Ericks, Mona Malm. Stig Olin that year directed Andersson in Commander of the Navy (Flottans overman). Stig Olin that year brought the film You are My Adventure (Du ar mitt aventyr) to the screen. Greta Garbo biographer Fritiof Billquist appeared on screen with Astrid Bodin, Ann-Marie Gyllenspetz, Git Gay and Ulla-Bella Fridh in the film Travel to Sun and Spring (Far Till Sol och Var), directed by Lars-Eric Kjellgren and photographed by Martin Bodin
In 1959 Hasse Ekman directed the films Good Heavens (Goodnes Gracious/Himmel och pannaka) and Miss Chic (Froken Chic), both starring Sickan Carlsson and co-scripted by G?sta Stevens. Both films were photographed by Martin Bodin. Alf Kjellin that year returned Alice Babs to the screen in the film Swinging at the Castle (Det svanger pa slottet, which also starred Yvonne Lombard and Lena Granhagen. Goran Gentele in 1959 brought Jar Kulle and Lena Söderblom to the screen in the film The Theif in the Bedroom (Sangkammartjuven.
In 1959 Arne Mattsson directed Rider in Blue (Ryttare i blatt), the first film in which the actress Solveig Ternstr?m was to appear, and Lend me your Wife (Far jag lana din fru?), with Annalisa Ericson. In 1960, Mattsson directed When Darkness Falls (Na morkret faller) with Nils Asther and Birgitta Pettersson and Summer and Sinners (Sommar och sydare) with Gio Petre, Yvge Gamlin and Elsa Prawitz. In 1961, he followed with The Summer Night is Sweet (Lovely is the Summer Night, Ljuvlig ar sommarnatten), photographed by Tony Forsberg and starring Marta Albin, Elsa Prawitz, Tekla Sjoblom and Christina Carlwind in her first appearance on the screen.
Kenne Fant in 1959 directed the film The Love Game (Den kara leken) with Bibi Andersson, Sven Lindberg and Lars Ekborg, his following it in 1960 with The Wedding Day (Brollopsdagen), in which Bibi Andersson stars with Elsa Carlsson. Both films were photographed by Swedish cinematographer Max Wilen. Alf Sj?berg in 1960 directed Ingrid Thulin and Mona Andersson in the film The Judge (Domaren), the film’s cinematographer Sven Nykvist. That year Rolf Husberg directed the films Av hjartans lust and Tarningen ar karstad starring Anita Bj?rk and Gio Petre. Hasse Ekman in 1960 wrote and directed both The Decimals of Love (Karleckens decimaler), based on a novel by G?sta Gustaf-Jansons and starring Eva Henning and Eva Dahlbeck and On the Beach in the Park (Pa en bank i park), in which he starred with Lena Granhagen and Sigge Furst. Helena Brodin appeared in her first film in 1960, Three Wishes (Three Desire/Tre Onskningar). Directed by Goran Gentele, the film also starred Eva Dahlbeck and Mimi Nelson.
After having directed the film The Pleasuregarden (Lustgarden, 1961), a film scripted by Ingmar Bergman and Erland Josephson, photographed by Gunnar Fischer and starring the ”polished performances” (Robert Emmet Long) of Bibi Andersson, Gunnar Bj?nstrand, G?sta Cederlund and Sickan Carlsson, Alf Kjellin directed Harriet Andersson in his film Siska-en kvinnobild, in 1962. The film was photographed by Gunnar Fischer. Ragnar Frisk directed Anita Lindblom in We Fix Everything (Vi fixar allt) in 1961, in Tre dar i buren in 1963 and again in Three Days A Vagabond (Tre dar pa luffen) in 1964. Vi fixar allt was the first film in which the actress Anna Sundqvist was to appear. Also in the film is Swedish actress Sangrid Nerf. Hasse Ekman in 1961 directed the film The Job/Braces (Stoten) with Gunnar Hellstrom, Tor Isedal, Maude Adelson and Ann-Mari Wiman. That year the first film directed by Lars Magnus Lindgren, There are no Angles (Anglar, finns dom) was to star Christine Schollin and Margit Carlqvist.
During 1962, Sandrew Film produced the film One Zeroe Too Many (En Nolla For Mycket) directed by Bjorje Nyberg and photographed by Hilding Bladh. The film stars Birgitta Andersson, Toivo Pawlo, Mona Malm and Lill-Babs.
 
 
 
 

 

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